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Cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) are one of the most populous cells in the mammalian brain. They express an outwardly rectifying potassium current, termed a "standing-outward" K(+) current, or IK(SO), which does not inactivate. It is active at the resting potential of CGNs, and blocking IK(SO) leads to cell depolarization. IK(SO) is blocked by Ba(2+) ions… (More)
A histochemical stain to detect cobalt in cells was used to investigate the ionic basis of heat transduction in mammalian primary afferent neurons. Cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons from the adult rat were exposed to 10-min heat stimuli in an extracellular solution containing cobalt ions. When accumulated intracellular cobalt was precipitated, a… (More)
In a recent micropuncture study electrodes with relatively large tips (3 to 5 mu O.D.) and, hence, low tip resistances were used to measure the transepithelial potential difference (PD) across the proximal tubule of the rat kidney. The present study reexamines the PD of the distal tubule of the rat kidney using such electrodes. In contrast to previous… (More)
Previous studies from our laboratory indicate that early distal segments of the rat kidney have a positive transepithelial potential difference (PD). The present study investigates the origin of the positive PD. PDs were measured in early distal segments using a technique which allowed simultaneous microperfusion and PD measurement through a single pipette… (More)
Previous measurements of the transepithelial potential difference (PD) of the proximal tubule have yielded widely conflicting values (range -20 to +3 mV). In a recent study, Kokko has demonstrated that the PD of the in vitro perfused isolated proximal tubule of the rabbit varies in a predictable way from -6 to +3 mV, depending on the concentration of… (More)
Microelectrodes with relatively large tips (3-5 mu O.D.) were used to measure the transepithelial potential difference (PD) of the distal tubule of the rat kidney in the control state and following i.v. administration of amiloride. This drug produced an increase in the magnitude of the positive PD in early distal segments (from +8.0 to +10.5 mV) and a… (More)
Two patients from an Australian Dialysis Centre developed a progressive neurological disorder with features similar to those recently discribed as the snydrome of Dementia Dialytica. These two patients are reported here and this newly recognised syndrome reviewed.