Lee Anthony Borthwick

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Partial nerve injury is a potential cause of distressing chronic pain for which conventional analgesic treatment with opiates or anti-inflammatory agents is not very effective. Constriction nerve injury, widely used to study neuropathic pain, was shown here to induce interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA in a subset of rat primary sensory neurons. When we inflicted(More)
In low-density, serum-free cultures of neurons from embryonic rat dorsal root ganglia, interleukin-6 supports the survival of less than one third of the neurons yet virtually all of them bear interleukin-6 alpha-receptors. A finding that might explain this selectivity is that interleukin-6 acts on sensory neurons in culture through a mechanism requiring(More)
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) after lung transplant. Although TNF-alpha accentuates TGF-beta1 driven EMT in primary human bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs), we hypothesized that other acute pro-inflammatory cytokines elevated in the airways of patients with OB may also(More)
Acute inflammation is a recognised part of normal wound healing. However, when inflammation fails to resolve and a chronic inflammatory response is established this process can become dysregulated resulting in pathological wound repair, accumulation of permanent fibrotic scar tissue at the site of injury and the failure to return the tissue to normal(More)
Therapies to limit or reverse fibrosis have proven unsuccessful, highlighting the need for a greater understanding of basic mechanisms that drive fibrosis and, in particular, the link between fibrosis and inflammation. It has been shown that pro-fibrotic transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1)-driven epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) can be(More)
Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome is characterized by fibrotic obliteration of small airways which severely impairs graft function and survival after lung transplantation. Bronchial epithelial cells from the transplanted lung can undergo epithelial to mesenchymal transition and this can be accentuated by activated macrophages. Macrophages demonstrate(More)
Fibrotic remodelling of lung parenchymal and airway compartments is the major contributor to life-threatening organ dysfunction in chronic lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Since transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is believed to play a key role in disease pathogenesis and markers(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that asthma is a heterogeneous disorder regulated by distinct molecular mechanisms. In a cross-sectional study of asthmatics of varying severity (n = 51), endobronchial tissue gene expression analysis revealed three major patient clusters: TH2-high, TH17-high, and TH2/17-low. TH2-high and TH17-high patterns were mutually(More)
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterised by impaired epithelial ion transport and is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis conductance regulator protein (CFTR), a cAMP/PKA and ATP-regulated chloride channel. We recently demonstrated a cAMP/PKA/calcineurin (CnA)-driven association between annexin 2 (anx 2), its cognate partner -S100A10 and cell surface(More)
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process by which an epithelial cell alters its phenotype to that of a mesenchymal cell and plays a critical role in embryonic development, tumour invasion and metastasis and tissue fibrosis. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) continues to be regarded as the key growth factor involved in driving EMT however(More)