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1 One may wonder, ...] how complex organisms evolve at all. They seem to have so many genes, so many multiple or pleiotropic eeects of any one gene, so many possibilities for lethal mutations in early development, and all sorts of problems due to their long development. Abstract: The problem of complex adaptations is studied in two largely disconnected(More)
The problem of complex adaptations is studied in two largely disconnected research traditions: evolutionary biology and evolutionary computer science. This paper summarizes the results from both areas and compares their implications. In evolutionary computer science it was found that the Darwinian process of mutation, recombination and selection is not(More)
SFI Working Papers contain accounts of scientific work of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the views of the Santa Fe Institute. We accept papers intended for publication in peer-reviewed journals or proceedings volumes, but not papers that have already appeared in print. Except for papers by our external faculty, papers must be based on work(More)
The evolution of new genes is distinct from evolution through allelic substitution in that new genes bring with them new degrees of freedom for genetic variability. Selection in the evolution of new genes can therefore act to sculpt the dimensions of variability in the genome. This " constructional " selection effect is an evolutionary mechanism, in(More)
NK fitness landscapes are stochastically generated fitness functions on bit strings, parameterized (with ¡ genes and ¢ interactions between genes) so as to make them tunably 'rugged'. Under the 'natural' genetic operators of bit-flipping mutation or recombination, NK landscapes produce multiple domains of attraction for the evolutionary dynamics. NK(More)
Holland's Schema Theorem is widely taken to be the foundation for explanations of the power of genetic algorithms (GAs). Yet some dissent has been expressed as to its implications. Here, dissenting arguments are reviewed and elaborated upon, explaining why the Schema Theorem has no implications for how well a GA is performing. Interpretations of the Schema(More)
Modifier gene models are used to explore the evolution of features of organisms, such as the genetic system, that are not directly involved in the determination of fitness. Recent work has shown that a general "reduction principle" holds in models of selectively neutral modifiers of recombination, mutation, and migration. Here we present a framework for(More)
Intuitive notions about the advantages of modularity for evolvability run into the problem of how we parse the organism into traits. In order to resolve the " question of multiplicity " , there needs to be a way to get the human observer out of the way, and define modularity in terms of physical processes. I will offer two candidate ideas towards this(More)