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1 One may wonder, ...] how complex organisms evolve at all. They seem to have so many genes, so many multiple or pleiotropic eeects of any one gene, so many possibilities for lethal mutations in early development, and all sorts of problems due to their long development. Abstract: The problem of complex adaptations is studied in two largely disconnected(More)
— The choice of how to represent the search space for a genetic algorithm (GA) is critical to the GA's performance. Representations are usually engineered by hand and fixed for the duration of the GA run. Here a new method is described in which the degrees of freedom of the representation — i.e. the genes – are increased incrementally. The phenotypic(More)
SFI Working Papers contain accounts of scientific work of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the views of the Santa Fe Institute. We accept papers intended for publication in peer-reviewed journals or proceedings volumes, but not papers that have already appeared in print. Except for papers by our external faculty, papers must be based on work(More)
The evolution of new genes is distinct from evolution through allelic substitution in that new genes bring with them new degrees of freedom for genetic variability. Selection in the evolution of new genes can therefore act to sculpt the dimensions of variability in the genome. This " constructional " selection effect is an evolutionary mechanism, in(More)
Evolutionary computation systems exhibit various emergent phenomena, primary of which is adaptation. In genetic programming, because of the indeterminate nature of the representation, the evolution of both recombi-nation distributions and representations can emerge from the population dynamics. A review of ideas on these phenomena is presented, including(More)
Holland's Schema Theorem is widely taken to be the foundation for explanations of the power of genetic algorithms (GAs). Yet some dissent has been expressed as to its implications. Here, dissenting arguments are reviewed and elaborated upon, explaining why the Schema Theorem has no implications for how well a GA is performing. Interpretations of the Schema(More)
Tomasetti and Vogelstein (2015) collected data on 31 different tissue types and found a correlation of 0.8 between the logarithms of the incidence of cancer (LCI), and the estimated number of stem cell divisions in those tissues (LSCD). Some of their conclusions however are statistically erroneous. Their excess risk score, " ERS " (log 10 LCI × log 10(More)
—The simplest diploid model of frequency-dependent selection can generate periodic and chaotic trajectories for the allele frequency. The model is of a randomly mating, infinite diploid population with non-overlapping generations, segregating for two alleles under frequency-dependent viability selection. The fitnesses of each of the three genotypes is a(More)