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SFI Working Papers contain accounts of scientific work of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the views of the Santa Fe Institute. We accept papers intended for publication in peer-reviewed journals or proceedings volumes, but not papers that have already appeared in print. Except for papers by our external faculty, papers must be based on work(More)
The evolution of new genes is distinct from evolution through allelic substitution in that new genes bring with them new degrees of freedom for genetic variability. Selection in the evolution of new genes can therefore act to sculpt the dimensions of variability in the genome. This " constructional " selection effect is an evolutionary mechanism, in(More)
NK fitness landscapes are stochastically generated fitness functions on bit strings, parameterized (with ¡ genes and ¢ interactions between genes) so as to make them tunably 'rugged'. Under the 'natural' genetic operators of bit-flipping mutation or recombination, NK landscapes produce multiple domains of attraction for the evolutionary dynamics. NK(More)
Holland's Schema Theorem is widely taken to be the foundation for explanations of the power of genetic algorithms (GAs). Yet some dissent has been expressed as to its implications. Here, dissenting arguments are reviewed and elaborated upon, explaining why the Schema Theorem has no implications for how well a GA is performing. Interpretations of the Schema(More)
Intuitive notions about the advantages of modularity for evolvability run into the problem of how we parse the organism into traits. In order to resolve the " question of multiplicity " , there needs to be a way to get the human observer out of the way, and define modularity in terms of physical processes. I will offer two candidate ideas towards this(More)
Tomasetti and Vogelstein (2015) collected data on 31 different tissue types and found a correlation of 0.8 between the logarithms of the incidence of cancer (LCI), and the estimated number of stem cell divisions in those tissues (LSCD). Some of their conclusions however are statistically erroneous. Their excess risk score, " ERS " (log 10 LCI × log 10(More)
—The simplest diploid model of frequency-dependent selection can generate periodic and chaotic trajectories for the allele frequency. The model is of a randomly mating, infinite diploid population with non-overlapping generations, segregating for two alleles under frequency-dependent viability selection. The fitnesses of each of the three genotypes is a(More)