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Three men with primary mediastinal germ-cell tumors subsequently developed a malignant hematologic disorder characterized by pancytopenia and marrow infiltration with hematopoietic blast cells. Two of these patients were classified as having acute megakaryocytic leukemia and the third was believed to have a myelodysplastic syndrome with a prominent(More)
The continued spread of HIV underscores the need to interrupt transmission. One attractive strategy, in the absence of an effective vaccine, is a topical microbicide, but the need for application around the time of sexual intercourse leads to poor patient compliance. Intravaginal (IVAG) application of CD4 aptamer-siRNA chimeras (CD4-AsiCs) targeting the HIV(More)
The capacity of rats to reduce a 25-mg dose of p-nitrobenzoic acid (PNBA) was measured by quantifying the amount of this compound recovered in the urine as p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and its conjugates. It was found that germfree rats converted approximately 1% of PNBA to PABA; in conventional rats the conversion was approximately 25%. Various bacteria(More)
The continued spread of the HIV epidemic underscores the need to interrupt transmission. One attractive strategy is a topical vaginal microbicide. Sexual transmission of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in mice can be inhibited by intravaginal siRNA application. To overcome the challenges of knocking down gene expression in immune cells susceptible to(More)
Staphylococcus aureus has remained an important cause of nosocomial wound infections, but standardized or reproducible systems for analyzing cutaneous infections caused by S. aureus do not exist. A variety of foreign materials, variable inocula, and skin traumas have been used to promote infection. To minimize these variables and ensure reproducibility, we(More)
Effective therapeutic strategies for in vivo siRNA delivery to knockdown genes in cells outside the liver are needed to harness RNA interference for treating cancer. EpCAM is a tumor-associated antigen highly expressed on common epithelial cancers and their tumor-initiating cells (TIC, also known as cancer stem cells). Here, we show that aptamer-siRNA(More)
An association of the histidine auxotroph of Salmonella typhimurium (strain TA1538) within the gastrointestinal tract of otherwise germfree Sprague-Dawley rats is maintained during periods of observation lasting as long as 7 months. The bacteria are found at levels exceeding 10(7) per g in the forestomach and at levels greater than 10(8) per g in the lower(More)
A rapid and sensitive high-pressure liquid chromatography assay for metronidazole and its two principle metabolites, 1-(2-hydroxyethyl-2-hydroxymethyl)-5-nitro-imidazole [hydroxy metabolite] and 1-acetic acid-2-methyl-5-metronidazole [acid metabolite], was developed. The retention times observed were 5.7, 3.3, and 4.5 min, respectively. A reverse-phase(More)
Human immune cells infected by HIV naturally contain high uracil content, and HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) does not distinguish between dUTP and dTTP. Many DNA viruses and retroviruses encode a dUTPase or uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG) to counteract uracil incorporation. However, although HIV virions are thought to contain cellular UNG2, replication of HIV(More)
Intravenous metronidazole was administered, either by continuous or intermittent infusion, to 20 patients with infections involving anaerobic bacteria; 14 of the 20 patients were changed to oral administration of metronidazole for completion of therapy. Six of eight patients with infections derived from oropharyngeal bacterial flora were cured; the addition(More)