Leanne M. Hirshfield

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We are in the midst of an explosion of emerging human-computer interaction techniques that redefine our understanding of both computers and interaction. We propose the notion of <i>Reality-Based Interaction</i> (RBI) as a unifying concept that ties together a large subset of these emerging interaction styles. Based on this concept of RBI, we provide a(More)
We are in the midst of an explosion of emerging human-computer interaction techniques that have redefined our understanding of both computers and interaction. We propose the notion of <i>Reality-Based Interaction</i> (RBI) as a unifying concept that ties together a large subset of these emerging interaction styles. Through RBI we are attempting to provide a(More)
A well designed user interface (UI) should be transparent, allowing users to focus their mental workload on the task at hand. We hypothesize that the overall mental workload required to perform a task using a computer system is composed of a portion attributable to the difficulty of the underlying task plus a portion attributable to the complexity of(More)
Passive brain-computer interfaces are designed to use brain activity as an additional input, allowing the adaptation of the interface in real time according to the user’s mental state. The goal of the present study is to distinguish between different levels of game difficulty using real-time, non-invasive brain activity measurement with functional(More)
We have applied functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to the human forehead to distinguish different levels of mental workload on the basis of hemodynamic changes occurring in the prefrontal cortex. We report data on 3 subjects from a protocol involving 3 mental workload levels based on to working memory tasks. To quantify the potential of fNIRS for(More)
Because functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) eases many of the restrictions of other brain sensors, it has potential to open up new possibilities for HCI research. From our experience using fNIRS technology for HCI, we identify several considerations and provide guidelines for using fNIRS in realistic HCI laboratory settings. We empirically examine(More)
We created Smart Blocks, an augmented mathematical manipulative that allows users to explore the concepts of volume and surface area of 3-dimensional (3D) objects. This interface supports physical manipulation for exploring spatial relationships and it provides continuous feedback for reinforcing learning. By leveraging the benefits of physicality with the(More)
We discuss the physiological metrics that can be measured with electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRs). We address the functional and practical limitations of each device, and technical issues to be mindful of when combining the devices. We also present machine learning methods that can be used on concurrent recordings(More)