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Most malignant brain tumours contain various numbers of cells with characteristics of activated or dysmorphic macrophages/microglia. These cells are generally considered part of the tumour stroma and are often described as TAM (tumour-associated macrophages). These types of cells are thought to either enhance or inhibit brain tumour progression. Recent(More)
Emerging evidence suggests that many metastatic cancers arise from cells of the myeloid/macrophage lineage regardless of the primary tissue of origin. A myeloid origin of metastatic cancer stands apart from origins involving clonal evolution or epithelial-mesenchymal transitions. Evidence is reviewed demonstrating that numerous human cancers express(More)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a rapidly progressive disease of morbidity and mortality and is the most common form of primary brain cancer in adults. Lack of appropriate in vivo models has been a major roadblock to developing effective therapies for GBM. A new highly invasive in vivo GBM model is described that was derived from a spontaneous brain tumor(More)
Malignant brain cancer persists as a major disease of morbidity and mortality. The failure to recognize brain cancer as a disease of energy metabolism has contributed in large part to the failure in management. As long as brain tumor cells have access to glucose and glutamine, the disease will progress. The current standard of care provides brain tumors(More)
GBM (glioblastoma multiforme) is the most aggressive and invasive form of primary human brain cancer. We recently developed a novel brain cancer model in the inbred VM mouse strain that shares several characteristics with human GBM. Using bioluminescence imaging, we tested the efficacy of CR (calorie restriction) for its ability to reduce tumour size and(More)
Despite highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), AIDS related lymphoma (ARL) occurs at a significantly higher rate in patients infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) than in the general population. HIV-infected macrophages are a known viral reservoir and have been shown to have lymphomagenic potential in SCID mice; therefore, there is an(More)
Despite HAART, patients infected with HIV develop NHL at a significantly higher level than the noninfected population. The primary difference between lymphoma in non-HIV-infected individuals and those with ARL is that ARL is consistently high-grade and metastatic. The emergence of ARL is associated with the presence of macrophage viral reservoirs, similar(More)
Metastasis is the process by which cancer cells disseminate from the primary neoplasm and invade surrounding tissue and distant organs, and is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality for cancer patients. Most conventional cancer therapies are ineffective in managing tumor metastasis. This has been due in large part to the absence of in vivo metastatic(More)
Combination of immune and viral factors distinguish low-risk versus high-risk HIV-1 disease progression in HLA-B*5701 subjects. Efficient transmission and persistence of low frequency SIVmac251 variants in CD8-depleted Rhesus macaques with different neuropathology. QuRe: software for viral quasispecies reconstruction from next generation sequence data.(More)
The HIV nef protein within ARL is genetically and structurally distinct from those in the brain of patients with HAD Background Despite antiretroviral therapy, macrophages remain significant cellular reservoirs for HIV infection. Two fatal macrophage-mediated diseases still occur at a much higher rate in the HIV-infected and HAART-treated population: (1)(More)