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Adequate initial configurations for molecular dynamics simulations consist of arrangements of molecules distributed in space in such a way to approximately represent the system's overall structure. In order that the simulations are not disrupted by large van der Waals repulsive interactions, atoms from different molecules must keep safe pairwise distances.(More)
Understanding the molecular basis of the binding modes of natural and synthetic ligands to nuclear receptors is fundamental to our comprehension of the activation mechanism of this important class of hormone regulated transcription factors and to the development of new ligands. Thyroid hormone receptors (TR) are particularly important targets for(More)
Steered molecular dynamics simulations of ligand dissociation from Thyroid hormone receptors indicate that dissociation is favored via rearrangements in a mobile part of the LBD comprising H3, the loop between H1 and H2, and nearby beta-sheets, contrary to current models in which the H12 is mostly involved. Dissociation is facilitated in this path by the(More)
Nuclear receptor (NR) ligands occupy a pocket that lies within the core of the NR ligand-binding domain (LBD), and most NR LBDs lack obvious entry/exit routes upon the protein surface. Thus, significant NR conformational rearrangements must accompany ligand binding and release. The precise nature of these processes, however, remains poorly understood. Here,(More)
As far as more complex systems are being accessible for quantum chemical calculations, the reliability of the algorithms used becomes increasingly important. Trust-region strategies comprise a large family of optimization algorithms that incorporates both robustness and applicability for a great variety of problems. The objective of this work is to provide(More)
While breast cancer (BC) is the major cause of death among women worldwide, there is no guarantee of better patient survival because many of these patients develop primarily metastases, despite efforts to detect it in its early stages. Bone metastasis is a common complication that occurs in 65-80 % of patients with disseminated disease, but the molecular(More)
Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) act through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) γ to increase insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but deleterious effects of these ligands mean that selective modulators with improved clinical profiles are needed. We obtained a crystal structure of PPARγ ligand binding domain (LBD) and found that the ligand(More)
Edema Factor (EF) is a component of Bacillus anthracis toxin essential for virulence. Its adenylyl cyclase activity is induced by complexation with the ubiquitous eukaryotic cellular protein, calmodulin (CaM). EF and its complexes with CaM, nucleotides and/or ions, have been extensively characterized by X-ray crystallography. Those structural data allowed(More)
Estrogen Receptor (ER) is an important target for pharmaceutical design. Like other ligand-dependent transcription factors, hormone binding regulates ER transcriptional activity. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which ligands enter and leave ERs and other nuclear receptors remain poorly understood. Here, we report results of locally enhanced sampling(More)
Bone metastasis is an incurable complication of breast cancer affecting 70–80 % of advanced patients. It is a multistep process that includes tumour cell mobilisation, intravasation, survival in the circulation, extravasation, migration and proliferation in the bone marrow/bone. Although novel findings demonstrate the bone marrow microenvironment(More)