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Experimental evidence indicates that saccadic metrics vary with task difficulty and time-on-task in naturalistic scenarios. We explore historical and recent findings on the correlation of saccadic velocity with task parameters in clinical, military, and everyday situations, and its potential role in ergonomics. We moreover discuss the hypothesis that(More)
Our eyes are always in motion. Even during periods of relative fixation we produce so-called 'fixational eye movements', which include microsaccades, drift and tremor. Mental fatigue can modulate saccade dynamics, but its effects on microsaccades and drift are unknown. Here we asked human subjects to perform a prolonged and demanding visual search task (a(More)
Classical image statistics, such as contrast, entropy, and the correlation between central and nearby pixel intensities, are thought to guide ocular fixation targeting. However, these statistics are not necessarily task relevant and therefore do not provide a complete picture of the relationship between informativeness and ocular targeting. Moreover, it is(More)
OBJECTIVE Little is known about the effects of surgical residents' fatigue on patient safety. We monitored surgical residents' fatigue levels during their call day using (1) eye movement metrics, (2) objective measures of laparoscopic surgical performance, and (3) subjective reports based on standardized questionnaires. BACKGROUND Prior attempts to(More)
INTRODUCTION For research and applications in the field of (neuro)ergonomics, it is of increasing importance to have reliable methods for measuring mental workload. In the present study we examined the hypothesis that saccadic eye movements can be used for an online assessment of mental workload. METHODS Saccadic main sequence (amplitude, duration and(More)
The primary aim of this study was to validate the saccadic main sequence, in particular the peak velocity [PV], as an alternative psychophysiological measure of Mental Workload [MW]. Taking the Wickens' multiple resource model as the theoretical framework of reference, an experiment was conducted using the Firechief® microworld. MW was manipulated by(More)
Hypoxia, defined as decreased availability of oxygen in the body's tissues, can lead to dyspnea, rapid pulse, syncope, visual dysfunction, mental disturbances such as delirium or euphoria, and even death. It is considered to be one of the most serious hazards during flight. Thus, early and objective detection of the physiological effects of hypoxia is(More)
In order to attain a finer reconstruction of the peopling of southern and central-eastern Europe from the Levant, we determined the frequencies of eight lineages internal to the Y chromosomal haplogroup J, defined by biallelic markers, in 22 population samples obtained with a fine-grained sampling scheme. Our results partially resolve a major multifurcation(More)
Microsaccades are involuntary, small-magnitude saccadic eye movements that occur during attempted visual fixation. Recent research has found that attention can modulate microsaccade dynamics, but few studies have addressed the effects of task difficulty on microsaccade parameters, and those have obtained contradictory results. Further, no study to date has(More)
Most research connecting task performance and neural activity to date has been conducted in laboratory conditions. Thus, field studies remain scarce, especially in extreme conditions such as during real flights. Here, we investigated the effects of flight procedures of varied complexity on the in-flight EEG activity of military helicopter pilots. Flight(More)