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Infectious disease can be a concern for several aspects of conservation biology, such as determining threats to species, estimating population viability, and designing reserves, captive breeding, and recovery programs. Several measures are useful for describing infectious diseases in host populations, but it is not straightforward to determine the degree to(More)
Articles E cological communities comprise complex networks of individuals interacting with each other and with their environment. Two major challenges for scientists, managers, and policymakers are (1) understanding the forces that organize these heterogeneous systems across space and time (Levin 1992, Levin et al. 1997, Brown et al. 2002) and (2) using(More)
We tested the hypothesis that dispersal is sex biased in an unexploited population of brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, on Cape Race, Newfoundland, Canada. Based on the assumptions that trout are promiscuous and that reproductive success is limited primarily by either number of mates (males) or fecundity (females), we predicted that males would disperse(More)
The environment is currently undergoing changes at both global (e.g., climate change) and local (e.g., tourism, pollution, habitat modification) scales that have the capacity to affect the viability of animal and plant populations. Many of these changes, such as human disturbance, have an anthropogenic origin and therefore may be mitigated by management(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to examine the association between calcium intake and prostate cancer risk. We hypothesized that calcium intake would be positively associated with lower risk for prostate cancer. METHODS We used data from a case-control study conducted among veterans between 2007 and 2010 at the Durham Veterans Affairs Medical(More)
BACKGROUND While epidemiologic studies suggest that metformin use among diabetics may decrease prostate cancer (PC) incidence, the effect of metformin use on PC outcome is unclear. We investigated the association between pre-operative metformin use, dose and duration of use and biochemical recurrence (BCR) in PC patients with diabetes who underwent radical(More)
In polygynous mating systems, males often increase their fecundity via aggressive defense of mates and/or resources necessary for successful mating. Here we show that both male and female reproductive behavior during the breeding season (June-August) affect female fecundity, a vital rate that is an important determinant of population growth rate and(More)