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The purpose of this work was to determine the effects of varying levels of dietary protein on body composition and muscle protein synthesis during energy deficit (ED). A randomized controlled trial of 39 adults assigned the subjects diets providing protein at 0.8 (recommended dietary allowance; RDA), 1.6 (2×-RDA), and 2.4 (3×-RDA) g kg(-1) d(-1) for 31 d. A(More)
BACKGROUND Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to be an effective supplement for reducing fat mass in animals, whereas results in humans have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVE This is a meta-analysis of human studies in which CLA was provided as a dietary supplement to test its efficacy in reducing fat mass. DESIGN We searched the PubMed database(More)
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is being sold as a panacea that has the capability of reducing or eliminating cancer, preventing heart disease, improving immune function, and altering body composition to treat obesity or build lean body mass. Unfortunately, there has been very little published human research on CLA. This review will examine the literature on(More)
Although obesity has multiple etiologies, an overlooked possibility is an infectious origin. We previously identified two viruses, SMAM-1, an avian adenovirus (Ad), and Ad-36, a human adenovirus, that produce a syndrome of visceral obesity, with paradoxically decreased serum cholesterol and triglycerides in chickens and mice. In the two studies presented in(More)
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common female endocrinopathy, is a complex metabolic syndrome of enhanced weight gain. The goal of this pilot study was to evaluate metabolic differences between normal (n=10) and PCOS (n=10) women via breath carbon isotope ratio, urinary nitrogen and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-determined serum metabolites. Breath(More)
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to enhance immune reactions such as lymphocyte blastogenesis and delayed-type hypersensitivity. We investigated the role of CLA in type I (immediate) hypersensitivity, using a guinea pig tracheal superfusion model for measuring antigen-induced airway smooth muscle contraction and inflammatory mediator release.(More)
This study investigated the capacity of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) to reduce ex vivo antigen-induced release of eicosanoids in a type I hypersensitivity model. Guinea pigs were fed a diet containing 0.25% safflower oil (control) or 0.25% CLA [43% trans (t)10, cis (c)12; 41% c9, t11/t9, c11 18:2] for 2 wk before and during sensitization to ovalbumin(More)
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is marketed in numerous commercially available dietary supplements, but few studies have looked at the long-term safety of this product. The current study evaluated the safety of one CLA product (Clarinol) over a one-year period in obese humans who were generally healthy. This was a randomized, double-blind study consisting of(More)
Treatment of laboratory animals with a 50:50 mixture of c9,t11 and t10,c12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) results in fat loss and, to a smaller degree, fat-free mass (FFM) gain. In a previous meta-analysis, we found that CLA produced a fat loss, but that humans were not as responsive as mice. We performed a similar meta-analysis in the same 18 studies to(More)
For obese individuals seeking to optimize health and well-being, healthy dietary strategies are important. Vegetables and fruits contribute to a healthy diet, and increased consumption may cause weight reduction by displacing foods high in energy and fat. The objective of this study was to determine if advising high vegetable (8 servings) and moderate fruit(More)