Leah Crawford

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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder. Evidence from twin, adoption, and family studies provide support for a genetic contribution to the etiology of ADHD. Several candidate gene studies have identified an association between a 7-repeat variant in exon 3 of the dopamine 4 receptor gene (DRD4)(More)
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood behavioral disorders. Genetic factors contribute to the underlying liability to develop ADHD. Reports implicate variants of genes important for the synthesis, uptake, transport and receptor binding of dopamine in the etiology of ADHD, including DRD4, DAT1, DRD2, and DRD5. In(More)
OBJECTIVE A major aim of this longitudinal high-risk study is to identify reliable early indicators of emerging bipolar disorder (BD) among offspring from well-characterized parents. METHODS High-risk offspring were recruited from families in which one parent had BD diagnosed on the basis of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia -(More)
This paper reviews the literature pertaining to the behavior of the Japanese or domestic quail Coturnix japonica. Details are given of the classification, characteristics, domestication and the economic and research potential of the species. Further sections deal with sensation and perception (including taste and smell, vision and hearing), maintenance(More)
OBJECTIVE Early intervention through hearing aids (HAs) and cochlear implants (CIs) aims to reduce the negative effects of childhood hearing loss and to promote optimal communication development over time. The primary goal of this study was to examine the communication outcomes of children with CIs and children with HAs at age 4 to 5 yrs and to consider(More)
The objective of this study is to examine daytime sleepiness and alertness and nap characteristics among women with significant emotional/behavioral premenstrual symptoms, and to determine their relationship with nocturnal sleep. Participants spent one night during the follicular phase and two nights during the late-luteal phase, one of which occurred after(More)
Sexual reinforcers are not part of a regulatory system involved in the maintenance of critical metabolic processes, they differ for males and females, they differ as a function of species and mating system, and they show ontogenetic and seasonal changes related to endocrine conditions. Exposure to a member of the opposite sex without copulation can be(More)
Male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) learned to approach lights that predicted visual exposure to a female quail and showed significantly less approach to lights that predicted the absence of a female quail. Following discrimination training, subjects were given transfer summation tests in which a stimulus positively correlated with female exposure (CS(More)
The copulatory behavior of sexually experienced male Japanese quail was tested using taxidermic models with varying proportions of natural and artificial features. Completely artificial models exerted little control over copulatory behavior, and whole natural body models reliably elicited copulatory behavior. In single model presentation tests, a model(More)