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Optogenetic inhibition of the electrical activity of neurons enables the causal assessment of their contributions to brain functions. Red light penetrates deeper into tissue than other visible wavelengths. We present a red-shifted cruxhalorhodopsin, Jaws, derived from Haloarcula (Halobacterium) salinarum (strain Shark) and engineered to result in red(More)
Optogenetic methods have been highly effective for suppressing neural activity and modulating behavior in rodents, but effects have been much smaller in primates, which have much larger brains. Here, we present a suite of technologies to use optogenetics effectively in primates and apply these tools to a classic question in oculomotor control. First, we(More)
PURPOSE Quantitative measurements of wall thickness in human abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) may lead to more accurate methods for the evaluation of their biomechanical environment. METHODS The authors describe an algorithm for estimating wall thickness in AAAs based on intensity histograms and neural networks involving segmentation of contrast enhanced(More)
Clinical and laboratory markers of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection were studied during the first 3 months after intravenous inoculation of rhesus macaques. Virus-binding serum antibody titres were correlated strongly with disease progression (P < 0.005) and were predictive of disease outcome by 7 weeks after inoculation. Low virus-binding(More)
1. Gf n the r , I . : J. Ul trastr . IRes. 4, 304 (1960); Mfihlethaler, K. : Beih. Z. Schweiz. Fors tvere in 30, 55 (1960) 2. Tonnesen, 13. A., Ellefsen, O. : Norsk Skogind. 14, 266 (t960); Marx-Figini , M., Schulz, G . V . : Biochim. Biophys. Acta 112, 81 (1966) 3Mark, R. E. : J. Po lymer Sci. C 36, 393 (t971) 4. S t6ekmann, V. E. : Biopolymers 11, 25t(More)
Correspondence should be addressed to E.S.B. (esb@media.mit.edu). 12These authors contributed equally to this work. Accession codes. GenBank: KM000925, KM000926, KM000927 and KM000928. Note: Any Supplementary Information and Source Data files are available in the online version of the paper. AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS A.S.C. and E.S.B. coordinated all experiments(More)
Phospholipase D containing water insoluble fraction was isolated from mature barley; the enzym preparation only had weak phospholipase B activity. The phospholipase D of barley was activated by Ca2+, diethyl ether and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS); EDTA inhibited the enzyme to an extent of 10% of the original activity. Diethyl ether and SDS showed and(More)
The influence of water activity (25-65% r.h.) on the changes in activity of glycolytic enzymes during storage (up to 120 days) of freeze-dehydrated bovine muscle was investigated. For this purpose, at different times of storage the decrease of glycogen and the increase in lactate in the rehydrated samples were determined. At 25% r.h. no loss in activity was(More)