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Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is essential for protecting cells from protein-damaging stress associated with misfolded proteins and regulates the insulin-signaling pathway and aging. Here, we show that human HSF1 is inducibly acetylated at a critical residue that negatively regulates DNA binding activity. Activation of the deacetylase and longevity factor(More)
non– heat-shocked cells (11). Our results raise the possibility that the c-Myb–induced activation of HSF3 contributes to the cell cycle– dependent expression of stress-responsive genes. Preparation of WCEs from Molt-4 human T cells and gel retardation assays were done as described (18). A double-stranded oligonucleotide derived from the distal HSE of the(More)
The heat shock response, characterized by increased expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps) is induced by exposure of cells and tissues to extreme conditions that cause acute or chronic stress. Hsps function as molecular chaperones in regulating cellular homeostasis and promoting survival. If the stress is too severe, a signal that leads to programmed cell(More)
SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) modification regulates many cellular processes, including transcription. Although sumoylation often occurs on specific lysines within the consensus tetrapeptide PsiKxE, other modifications, such as phosphorylation, may regulate the sumoylation of a substrate. We have discovered PDSM (phosphorylation-dependent sumoylation(More)
GRP78, also known as BiP, is one of the better-characterized molecular chaperones. It has been implicated in protein folding and also calcium sequestration in the endoplasmic reticulum. When the cells are subjected to endoplasmic reticulum stress, in particular the depletion of stored calcium and/or the accumulation of abnormal proteins, the rate of(More)
Two members of the heat shock transcription factor (HSF) family, HSF1 and HSF2, both function as transcriptional activators of heat shock gene expression. However, the inducible DNA-binding activities of these two factors are regulated by distinct pathways. HSF1 is activated by heat shock and other forms of stress, whereas HSF2 is activated during(More)
Sodium salicylate, an anti-inflammatory agent, was examined for its effects on the heat shock response in cultured human cells. Salicylate activation of DNA binding by the heat shock transcription factor (HSF) was comparable to activation attained during heat shock. However, sodium salicylate did not induce heat shock gene transcription even though the HSF(More)
Hemin induces nonterminal differentiation of human K562 erythroleukemia cells, which is accompanied by the expression of certain erythroid cell-specific genes, such as the embryonic and fetal globins, and elevated expression of the stress genes hsp70, hsp90, and grp78/BiP. Previous studies revealed that, as during heat shock, transcriptional induction of(More)
The synthesis of heat shock proteins (Hsps), encoded by heat shock genes, is increased in response to various stress stimuli. Hsps function as molecular chaperones, they dissociate cytotoxic stress-induced protein aggregates within cells and ensure improved survival. Induction of heat shock genes is mainly regulated at the transcriptional level. The stress(More)
Heat-shock transcription factor (HSF) family members function in stress protection and in human diseases including proteopathies, neurodegeneration and cancer. The mechanisms that drive distinct post-translational modifications, cofactor recruitment and target-gene activation for specific HSF paralogs are unknown. We present crystal structures of the human(More)