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In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy(More)
BACKGROUND The refractive index (RI) of cellular material provides fundamental biophysical information about the composition and organizational structure of cells. Efforts to describe the refractive properties of cells have been significantly impeded by the experimental difficulties encountered in measuring viable cell RI. In this report we describe a(More)
Impaired glucose uptake is associated with both cardiac hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction, but whether there are common underlying mechanisms linking these conditions is yet to be determined. Using a 'gene dose' Cre-Lox GLUT4-deficient murine model, we examined the effect of suppressed glucose availability on global myocardial gene expression and(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to determine whether cardiac hypertrophy in hypertensive rats could be reduced and normalized by intermittent reduction of blood pressure, and to determine whether left ventricular hypertrophy was related to 24 h workload or peak blood pressure responses. METHODS Hypertension was created by the application of a(More)
Angiotensin II (AngII) interacts with two receptor subtypes, AT1 and AT2, belonging to the seven transmembrane receptor superfamily. Pharmacological investigations initially suggested that AT2 receptors antagonize AT1 effects. Data from AT2 receptor transgenic and knock-out mice have not been entirely consistent with this interpretation. At the cellular(More)
The cardiovascular hormone angiotensin II (AngII) exerts its actions via two G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) subtypes, AT(1) and AT(2), which often display antagonistic functions. Methodological constraints have so far precluded detailed analyses of the ligand-dependency, cellular localization, and functional relevance of AngII receptor interactions in(More)
BACKGROUND Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) activation is known to be associated with conditions where the incidence of arrhythmias is increased, and where cardiomyocyte Ca(2+)-overload occurs. The goal of this study was to determine whether CaMKII inhibition in the intact heart may be linked to the suppression of ventricular arrhythmias(More)
Important sex differences in the onset and characteristics of cardiovascular disease are evident, yet the mechanistic details remain unresolved. Men are more susceptible to cardiovascular disease earlier in life, though younger women who have a cardiovascular event are more likely to experience adverse outcomes. Emerging evidence is prompting a(More)
Reactive oxygen species such as superoxide are implicated in cardiac hypertrophy, but their contribution to the cardiac complications of insulin resistance is unresolved. We tested the hypothesis that the antioxidant tempol attenuates cardiac hypertrophy in insulin-resistant mice. Mice with cardiac GLUT4 deletion (GLUT4-knockout), superimposed on global(More)