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BACKGROUND Pakistan has one of the highest levels of child and maternal undernutrition worldwide, but little information about geographical and socioeconomic inequalities is available. We aimed to analyse anthropometric indicators for childhood and maternal nutrition at a district level in Pakistan and assess the association of nutritional status with food(More)
BACKGROUND Prioritising control measures for occupationally related cancers should be evidence based. We estimated the current burden of cancer in Britain attributable to past occupational exposures for International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) group 1 (established) and 2A (probable) carcinogens. METHODS We calculated attributable fractions and(More)
A sound knowledge base is required to target resources to reduce workplace exposure to carcinogens. This project aimed to provide an objective estimate of the burden of cancer in Britain due to occupation. This volume presents extensive analyses for all carcinogens and occupational circumstances defined as definite or probable human occupational carcinogens(More)
This project aimed to estimate of the current burden of cancer for Great Britain due to occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents/ exposure circumstances. The measure of the burden of cancer used was the attributable fraction (AF) i.e. the proportion of cases that would not have occurred in the absence of exposure. Data were obtained on the risk of the(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of aircraft noise with risk of stroke, coronary heart disease, and cardiovascular disease in the general population. DESIGN Small area study. SETTING 12 London boroughs and nine districts west of London exposed to aircraft noise related to Heathrow airport in London. POPULATION About 3.6 million residents(More)
BACKGROUND The authors analyse the spatio-temporal variations of the incidence of bladder cancer between 1973 and 2004 in Utah at the census tract level (496 areas) to highlight areas of high and low relative risks that remained so throughout the 32 year period. Using these identified areas, a novel strategy is used to carry out a geographical case-control(More)
BACKGROUND Cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality has more than halved in England since the 1980s, but there are few data on small-area trends. We estimated CVD mortality by ward in 5-year intervals between 1982 and 2006, and examined trends in relation to starting mortality, region and community deprivation. METHODS We analysed CVD death rates using a(More)
Green space has been identified as a modifiable feature of the urban environment and associations with physiological and psychological health have been reported at the local level. This study aims to assess whether these associations between health and green space are transferable to a larger scale, with English cities as the unit of analysis. We used an(More)
BACKGROUND Seventy-five percent of the population in Europe live in urban areas and analysing the effects of urban form on the health of the urban population is of great public health interest. Not much is known, however, on the effects of urban form on the health of city dwellers. This study uses a novel approach to investigate whether associations exist(More)