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Vertebrate skin is characterized by its patterned array of appendages, whether feathers, hairs, or scales. In avian skin the distribution of feathers occurs on two distinct spatial levels. Grouping of feathers within discrete tracts, with bare skin lying between the tracts, is termed the macropattern, while the smaller scale periodic spacing between(More)
High density (HD) SNP genotyping arrays are an important tool for genetic analyses of animals and plants. Although the chicken is one of the most important farm animals, no HD array is yet available for high resolution genetic analysis of this species. We report here the development of a 600 K Affymetrix® Axiom® HD genotyping array designed using SNPs(More)
Remote sensing techniques that provide synoptic and repetitive observations over large geographic areas have become increasingly important in studying the role of agriculture in global carbon cycles. However, it is still challenging to model crop yields based on remotely sensed data due to the variation in radiation use efficiency (RUE) across crop types(More)
Nonverbal behavior is a very important part of human interactions; and how this behavior is tracked and rendered is also key to establishing social presence. Tracking nonverbal behavior is useful not only for rendering signals via avatar, but also for providing clues about interactants. In this paper we describe a novel method of determining identity (i.e.,(More)
The inference of gene regulatory networks is a key issue for genomic signal processing. This paper addresses the inference of probabilistic Boolean networks (PBNs) from observed temporal sequences of network states. Since a PBN is composed of a finite number of Boolean networks, a basic observation is that the characteristics of a single Boolean network(More)
Seasonally breeding mammals such as sheep use photoperiod, encoded by the nocturnal secretion of the pineal hormone melatonin, as a critical cue to drive hormone rhythms and synchronize reproduction to the most optimal time of year. Melatonin acts directly on the pars tuberalis (PT) of the pituitary, regulating expression of thyrotropin, which then relays(More)
Persistent free-running circannual (approximately year-long) rhythms have evolved in animals to regulate hormone cycles, drive metabolic rhythms (including hibernation), and time annual reproduction. Recent studies have defined the photoperiodic input to this rhythm, wherein melatonin acts on thyrotroph cells of the pituitary pars tuberalis (PT), leading to(More)
Due to the large number of variables required and the limited number of independent experiments, the inference of genetic regulatory networks from gene expression data is a challenge of long standing within the microarray field. This report investigates the inference of Boolean networks with perturbation (BNp) from simulated data and observed microarray(More)
6SA-CASSCF(10, 10) /6-31G (d, p) and MRCI/cc-pVDZ methods were performed to probe photoisomerization reaction mechanisms of o-nitrophenol. Two low-lying singlet electronic states (S0 and S1) and two low-lying triplet electronic states (T1 and T2) were found to weave an intersystem crossing network in which a dominant stepwise photoisomerization provides a(More)
We develop a novel method to simulate analytical nonadiabatic switching probability based on effective coupling and effective collision energy by using only electronic adiabatic potential energy surfaces and its gradients in the case of avoided crossing types of nonadiabatic transitions. In addition, the present method can keep the same time step for(More)