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In this study, we investigated the antibacterial mechanism through the interfacial contacting inhibition behaviors of chitosan antimicrobials against Escherichia coli in solid dispersing state. Chitosan microspheres (CMs) were prepared by emulsification cross-linking reaction, and oleoyl-CMs (OCMs) were obtained by introduction of oleoyl groups to the(More)
A spatial multi-objective land use optimization model defined by the acronym 'NSGA-II-MOLU' or the 'non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II for multi-objective optimization of land use' is proposed for searching for optimal land use scenarios which embrace multiple objectives and constraints extracted from the requirements of users, as well as providing(More)
High density (HD) SNP genotyping arrays are an important tool for genetic analyses of animals and plants. Although the chicken is one of the most important farm animals, no HD array is yet available for high resolution genetic analysis of this species. We report here the development of a 600 K Affymetrix® Axiom® HD genotyping array designed using SNPs(More)
Macroautophagy is a process by which cytoplasmic content and organelles are sequestered by double-membrane bound vesicles and subsequently delivered to lysosomes for degradation. Macroautophagy serves as a major intracellular pathway for protein degradation and as a pro-survival mechanism in time of stress by generating nutrients. In the present study,(More)
BACKGROUND The identification of lymph node metastases in colorectal resection specimens is necessary for accurate tumor staging. However, routine lymph node dissection by the pathologist yields only a subset of nodes removed surgically and may not include those nodes most directly in the path of lymphatic drainage from the tumor. Intraoperative mapping of(More)
Vertebrate skin is characterized by its patterned array of appendages, whether feathers, hairs, or scales. In avian skin the distribution of feathers occurs on two distinct spatial levels. Grouping of feathers within discrete tracts, with bare skin lying between the tracts, is termed the macropattern, while the smaller scale periodic spacing between(More)
Cigarette smoking is a putative environmental risk factor for colon cancer. Nicotine, an active alkaloid in tobacco, has been implicated in carcinogenesis. In the present study, we demonstrated that oral nicotine administration (50 or 200 microg/ml) for 25 days stimulated growth of human colon cancer xenograft in nude mice. It also increased vascularization(More)
Unchecked mitogenic signals due to the overexpression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor (EGFR) is implicated in the promotion and progression of cancer. In addition, beta-adrenoceptor is involved in the control of cancer cell proliferation. This study sought to elucidate whether a functional connection exists between these two disparate(More)
Location-based social networks (LBSNs) feature friend discovery by location proximity that has attracted hundreds of millions of users world-wide. While leading LBSN providers claim the well-protection of their users' location privacy, for the first time we show through real world attacks that these claims do not hold. In our identified attacks, a malicious(More)
Oxalate is widely distributed in the plant kingdom. While excess oxalate in food crops is detrimental to animal and human health, it may play various functional roles in plants, particularly for coping with environmental stresses. Understanding its biosynthetic mechanism in plants, therefore, becomes increasingly important both theoretically and(More)