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Nesprins are a family of nuclear transmembrane proteins anchored via Sun proteins to the nuclear membrane. Analysis of nesprins during human muscle development revealed an increase in nesprin-1-giant during early myogenesis in vitro. During the transition from immature to mature muscle fibres in vivo, nesprin-2 partly replaced nesprin-1 at the nuclear(More)
BACKGROUND Spinal muscular atrophy is caused by reduced levels of the survival of motor neurons (SMN) protein. SMN is found in large complexes with Sm proteins and at least eight other proteins, including seven "gemins". These complexes are involved in the assembly of snRNPs in the cytoplasm and their transport into the nucleus, but the precise roles of the(More)
The nuclear envelope-associated cytoskeletal protein, nesprin-2, is encoded by a large gene containing several internal promoters that produce shorter isoforms. In a study of Ntera-2 teratocarcinoma cells, a novel isoform, nesprin-2-epsilon, was found to be the major mRNA and protein product of the nesprin-2 gene. Its existence was predicted by(More)
Myotonic dystrophy (DM1) is caused by the expansion of a CTG repeat in the noncoding region of a protein kinase, DMPK, expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscles. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of very large CTG expansions on DMPK expression and skeletal muscle development. In fetuses suffering from the severe congenital form of(More)
Understanding networks of interacting proteins is a major goal in cell biology. The survival of motor neurons protein (SMN) interacts, directly or indirectly, with a large number of other proteins and reduced levels of SMN cause the inherited disorder spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Some SMN interactions are stable and stoichiometric, such as those with(More)
Valproate is commonly used as an anticonvulsant and mood stabilizer, but its long-term side-effects can include bone loss. As a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, valproate has also been considered for treatment of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Using iTRAQ labeling technology, followed by two-dimensional liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry(More)
Nesprin-1-giant and nesprin-2-giant regulate nuclear positioning by the interaction of their C-terminal KASH domains with nuclear membrane SUN proteins and their N-terminal calponin-homology domains with cytoskeletal actin. A number of short isoforms lacking the actin-binding domains are produced by internal promotion. We have evaluated the significance of(More)
Nesprin-1-giant (1008kD) is a protein of the outer nuclear membrane that links nuclei to the actin cytoskeleton via amino-terminal calponin homology domains. The short nesprin-1 isoform, nesprin-1-α2, is present only in skeletal and cardiac muscle and several pathogenic mutations occur within it, but the functions of this short isoform without calponin(More)
Five subtypes of dopamine receptor exist in two subfamilies: two D(1)-like (D(1) and D(5)) and three D(2)-like (D(2), D(3) and D(4)). We produced novel monoclonal antibodies against all three D(2)-like receptors and used them to localize receptors in Ntera-2 (NT-2) cells, the human neuronal precursor cell line. Most of the immunostaining for all three(More)
Mutations in the gene encoding fukutin protein cause Fukuyama muscular dystrophy, a severe congenital disorder that occurs mainly in Japan. A major consequence of the mutation is reduced glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan, which is also a feature of other forms of congenital and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. Immunodetection of endogenous fukutin in cells(More)