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Various experiments have suggested that the S4 segment in voltage-dependent Na(+) and K(+) channels is in contact with a solvent-accessible cavity. We explore the consequences of the existence of such a cavity through the electrostatic effects on the gating currents of Shaker K(+) channels under conditions of reduced ionic strength S. We observe that(More)
Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-modulated (HCN) ion channels regulate the spontaneous firing activity and electrical excitability of many cardiac and neuronal cells. The modulation of HCN channel opening by the direct binding of cAMP underlies many physiological processes such as the autonomic regulation of the heart rate. Here we use a(More)
The members of the voltage-dependent potassium channel family subserve a variety of functions and are expected to have voltage sensors with different sensitivities. The Shaker channel of Drosophila, which underlies a transient potassium current, has a high voltage sensitivity that is conferred by a large gating charge movement, approximately 13 elementary(More)
Some members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of cation channels mediate sensory responses to irritant substances. Although it is well known that TRPA1 channels are activated by pungent compounds found in garlic, onion, mustard and cinnamon extracts, activation of TRPV1 by these extracts remains controversial. Here we establish that TRPV1 is(More)
Since 1992, there has been growing evidence that the bioactive phospholipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), whose amounts are increased upon tissue injury, activates primary nociceptors resulting in neuropathic pain. The TRPV1 ion channel is expressed in primary afferent nociceptors and is activated by physical and chemical stimuli. Here we show that in(More)
The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel is a nonselective cation channel activated by capsaicin and responsible for thermosensation. To date, little is known about the gating characteristics of these channels. Here we used tetrabutylammonium (TBA) to determine whether this molecule behaves as an ion conduction blocker in TRPV1 channels(More)
The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) nonselective cationic channel is a polymodal receptor that activates in response to a wide variety of stimuli. To date, little structural information about this channel is available. Here, we used quaternary ammonium ions (QAs) of different sizes in an effort to gain some insight into the nature and(More)
The TRPV1 ion channel serves as an integrator of noxious stimuli with its activation linked to pain and neurogenic inflammation. Cholesterol, a major component of cell membranes, modifies the function of several types of ion channels. Here, using measurements of capsaicin-activated currents in excised patches from TRPV1-expressing HEK cells, we show that(More)
Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels have been shown to be blocked by diltiazem, tetracaine, polyamines, toxins, divalent cations, and other compounds. Dequalinium is an organic divalent cation which suppresses the rat small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel 2 (rSK2) and the activity of protein kinase C. In this study, we have tested the ability(More)
The presence of a stretch-activated channel in rat cerebellar astrocytes in culture is described. This stretch-sensitive channel is K(+)-selective and its open probability increases with suction following a Boltzmann-like distribution with half activation at 45 mm Hg. Kinetic analysis of the single-channel data indicated that there are two open and two(More)