Layton H. Smith

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Cardiac hypertrophy is initiated as an adaptive response to sustained overload but progresses pathologically as heart failure ensues. Here we report that genetic loss of APJ, a G-protein-coupled receptor, confers resistance to chronic pressure overload by markedly reducing myocardial hypertrophy and heart failure. In contrast, mice lacking apelin (the(More)
As part of our ongoing small-molecule metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor positive allosteric modulator (PAM) research, we performed structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies around a series of group II mGlu PAMs. Initial analogues exhibited weak activity as mGlu2 receptor PAMs and no activity at mGlu3. Compound optimization led to the identification(More)
Because excretion of certain nucleosides increases in all types of cancer, detection and treatment of the disease would be enhanced by rapid, simple quantitation of such nucleotides. To facilitate these analyses in urine, we have prepared a specific adsorbent for nucleosides. The affinity adsorbent gel contains an immobilized phenylboronic acid group that(More)
NOD1 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1) protein is a member of the NLR (NACHT and leucine rich repeat domain containing proteins) protein family, which plays a key role in innate immunity as a sensor of specific microbial components derived from bacterial peptidoglycans and induction of inflammatory responses. Mutations in NOD proteins have been(More)
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an emerging pathogenic alphavirus that can cause significant disease in humans. Given the absence of therapeutic options available and the significance of VEEV as a weaponized agent, an optimization effort was initiated around a quinazolinone screening hit 1 with promising cellular antiviral activity (EC50 =(More)
Herein we present the outcome of a high throughput screening (HTS) campaign-based strategy for the rapid identification and optimization of selective and general chemotypes for both kappa (κ) opioid receptor (KOR) activation and inhibition. In this program, we have developed potent antagonists (IC(50) < 120 nM) or agonists of high binding affinity (K(i) < 3(More)
Medulloblastoma (MB) is a highly malignant brain tumor that occurs primarily in children. Although surgery, radiation and high-dose chemotherapy have led to increased survival, many MB patients still die from their disease, and patients who survive suffer severe long-term side effects as a consequence of treatment. Thus, more effective and less toxic(More)
A unique series of biologically active chemical probes that selectively inhibit NF-kappaB activation induced by protein kinase C (PKC) pathway activators have been identified through a cell-based phenotypic reporter gene assay. These 2-aminobenzimidazoles represent initial chemical tools to be used in gaining further understanding on the cellular mechanisms(More)
b S Supporting Information T he mammalian innate immune system serves as a first line of defense and relies on the detection of specific microbial ligands or " pathogen-associated molecular patterns " (PAMPs) by pattern recognition molecules (PRMs), acting as microbial sensors. 1À7 In this context, among the major classes of PRMs is the NLR (NACHT and(More)