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The deterioration in immune function with aging is thought to make a major contribution to the increased morbidity and mortality from infectious disease in old age. One aspect of immune senescence is the reduction in CD8 T cell repertoire as due to the accumulation of oligoclonal, memory T cells and a reduction in the naive T cell pool. CD8 T cell clonal(More)
Ageing is associated with evidence of immune deficiency and dysregulation. Key changes in the immune system with ageing include a progressive reduction in naive T cell output associated with thymic involution and peripheral expansion of oligoclonal memory T cells. These features are associated with evidence of impaired immune responsiveness both in vitro(More)
Aging in humans is associated with increased infections and the reduced proliferative capacity of T cells, part of the more global phenomenon termed immune senescence. The etiology of immune senescence is unknown but the accumulation of virus-specific memory T cells may be a contributory factor. We have examined CD8 T cell responses to two persistent(More)
The following study investigated wrist torque strength measurements of a group of younger and older adults. The aim of the study was to examine the impact of shape, diameter and height of lid on wrist torque opening strength. Forty participants took part in the study in four groups, younger males and females and older males and females. Data were collected(More)
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infects most individuals and elicits a strong CMV-specific immune response. We have studied the influence of CMV-seropositivity on the size of lymphoid subsets in healthy donors and demonstrate that the virus substantially modulates the peripheral lymphoid pool. CD8(+) T cell numbers are increased in all CMV-seropositive individuals(More)
Immune function in the elderly is associated with a number of phenotypic and functional abnormalities, and this phenomenon of immune senescence is associated with increased susceptibility to infection. The immune response to pathogens frequently declines with age, but the CD8(+) T-cell response to cytomegalovirus (CMV) is unusual, as it demonstrates a(More)
Elderly humans are more susceptible to bacterial infections because of declining immune status. We have investigated the effect of aging on neutrophil bactericidal responses, comparing neutrophil function in healthy, young (23-35 years) and elderly (>65 years) volunteers. Superoxide generation in response to fMLP was slightly increased in neutrophils from(More)
Replication of human cytomegalovirus is controlled by a vigorous CD8 T cell response. The persistent nature of infection is believed to periodically stimulate T cell responses resulting in considerable expansions of virus-specific CD8 T cells over time. In this study, we describe the magnitude and breadth of CD8 T cell responses against the immunodominant(More)
Antigen-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells often demonstrate extreme conservation of T-cell receptor (TCR) usage between different individuals, but similar characteristics have not been documented for CD4(+) T cells. CD4(+) T cells predominantly have a helper immune role, but a cytotoxic CD4(+) T-cell subset has been characterized, and we have studied the(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes that lack CD3 and express variable levels of CD16, CD56 and CD57. In recent years NK cells have been categorised into two major groups based on the level of CD56 expression. This phenotypic classification correlates with functional activity as CD56bright NK cells are the major cytokine producing subset(More)