Lawrence W. Castellani

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Serum paraoxonase (PON1) is an esterase that is associated with high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) in the plasma; it is involved in the detoxification of organophosphate insecticides such as parathion and chlorpyrifos. PON1 may also confer protection against coronary artery disease by destroying pro-inflammatory oxidized lipids present in oxidized low-density(More)
Systems genetics relies on common genetic variants to elucidate biologic networks contributing to complex disease-related phenotypes. Mice are ideal model organisms for such approaches, but linkage analysis has been only modestly successful due to low mapping resolution. Association analysis in mice has the potential of much better resolution, but it is(More)
Obesity is a highly heritable disease driven by complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Human genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a number of loci contributing to obesity; however, a major limitation of these studies is the inability to assess environmental interactions common to obesity. Using a systems genetics(More)
BACKGROUND Serum paraoxonase (PON1), an enzyme carried on HDL, inhibits LDL oxidation, and in human population studies, low PON1 activity is associated with atherosclerosis. In addition, PON1 knockout mice are more susceptible to lipoprotein oxidation and atherosclerosis. To evaluate whether PON1 protects against atherosclerosis and lipid oxidation in a(More)
OBJECTIVE Insulin-resistant states, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, contribute substantially to accelerated atherogenesis. Null mutations of myostatin (Mstn) are associated with increased muscle mass and decreased fat mass. In this study, we determined whether Mstn disruption could prevent the development of insulin resistance, proatherogenic(More)
Concentrations of plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) are inversely correlated with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. The two most abundant protein constituents of HDL are apolipoproteins A-I and A-II (apoA-I and apoA-II). ApoA-I is required for assembly of HDL and, when overexpressed in transgenic mice, confers resistance to early atherosclerosis.(More)
Apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-II) is the second most abundant protein in HDLs. Genetic studies in humans have provided evidence of linkage of the apoA-II gene locus to plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels and to type 2 diabetes, and transgenic mice overexpressing mouse apoA-II have elevated levels of both FFA and triglycerides. We now show that apoA-II promotes(More)
Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL, MIM-144250) is a common, multifactorial and heterogeneous dyslipidemia predisposing to premature coronary artery disease and characterized by elevated plasma triglycerides, cholesterol, or both. We identified a mutant mouse strain, HcB-19/Dem (HcB-19), that shares features with FCHL, including hypertriglyceridemia,(More)
The three-dimensional structure of scallop sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes has been determined from electron micrographs of two classes of stain-filled tubules by helical reconstruction methods. These structures are characterized by dimer ribbons of Ca2+-ATPase molecules running diagonally around the tube wall. Deep right-handed grooves separate the(More)
Inbred strains of mice are strikingly different in susceptibility to obesity-driven diabetes. For instance, deficiency in leptin receptor (db/db) leads to hyperphagia and obesity in both C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice, but only on the DBA/2 background do the mice develop beta-cell loss leading to severe diabetes, while C57BL/6 mice are relatively resistant. To(More)