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OBJECTIVE To test the efficacy in terms of birth weight and infant survival of a diet supplement programme in pregnant African women through a primary healthcare system. DESIGN 5 year controlled trial of all pregnant women in 28 villages randomised to daily supplementation with high energy groundnut biscuits (4.3 MJ/day) for about 20 weeks before delivery(More)
A prospective study of the bowel habits of 240 infants aged 2-20 weeks was performed. Half of the infants were breast fed and half were fed cow's milk formula (CMF). Breast-fed infants had a higher mean frequency of defaecation than did CMF-fed infants at 2, 4 and 8 weeks (p less than 0.02). By 16 weeks the mean frequency of bowel actions per day of infants(More)
It is now over 60 years since Nier built the first isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The introduction of continuous-flow techniques heralded a huge expansion in the use of stable isotopes in biomedical and environmental sciences, yet there is no consensus on the appropriate units, especially in the biomedical field. Most isotope ratio mass spectrometry(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Childhood-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) might be etiologically different from adult-onset IBD. We analyzed disease phenotypes and progression of childhood-onset disease and compared them with characteristics of adult-onset disease in patients in Scotland. METHODS Anatomic locations and behaviors were assessed in 416 patients(More)
Helicobacter pylori infection is a major cause of upper gastrointestinal disease throughout the world. Colonization begins in childhood, although little is known about its age of onset, rate, or mode of colonization. Our aim was to identify the age of acquisition of H. pylori colonization in Gambian children. A cohort of 248 Gambian children aged 3 to 45(More)
BACKGROUND Intestinal failure (IF) affects a growing number of children due to increasing numbers of preterm infants surviving intestinal resection for necrotising enterocolitis and improving surgical techniques for congenital gut anomalies. Parenteral nutrition (PN) is the mainstay of therapy; enteral nutrition may have trophic effects on the gut. AIM To(More)
Helicobacter pylori is arguably the commonest chronic infection in man. However, its route of transmission is unknown. We have isolated viable H pylori from the faeces of an infected individual from The Gambia. The organism was cultured on selective media after concentration of faecal bacteria by centrifugation in a buffer equilibrated with a(More)
The incidence of cystic fibrosis over the last 10 years in East Anglia (a region of the United Kingdom with a population of 2.1 million) has halved. This has happened during the establishment of a neonatal screening programme, which has enabled early diagnosis, genetic counselling, and lately the option of prenatal diagnosis in subsequent pregnancies. One(More)