Lawrence Steinman

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In page 1264 of this article, it is stated that “The donor cells were dispersed over an average radius of 1.6 ± 0.6 mm, and the mean number of HNA+ nuclei/mm3 within each was 136,726 ± 23,515”. The authors wish to clarify that they used the word “radius” in the non-geometric sense, as in this definition of the American Heritage Dictionary: “A bounded range(More)
In this study, exosomes used to encapsulate curcumin (Exo-cur) or a signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) inhibitor, i.e., JSI124 (Exo-JSI124) were delivered noninvasively to microglia cells via an intranasal route. The results generated from three inflammation-mediated disease models, i.e., a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced brain(More)
Interferon-β (IFN-β) is the major treatment for multiple sclerosis. However, this treatment is not always effective. Here we have found congruence in outcome between responses to IFN-β in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). IFN-β was effective in reducing EAE symptoms induced by T helper type 1(More)
Spinal cord injury results in a massive loss of neurons, and thus of function. We recently reported that passive transfer of autoimmune T cells directed against myelin-associated antigens provides acutely damaged spinal cords with effective neuroprotection. The therapeutic time window for the passive transfer of T cells was found to be at least 1 week. Here(More)
762 Multiple sclerosis (MS) usually begins in early adulthood with an autoimmune inflammatory “strike” against components of the myelin sheath. Paralysis, sensory disturbances, lack of coordination and visual impairment are common features. The disease often starts with an “attack” that lasts from a few days to weeks; this is followed by remission that(More)
GABA, the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain, has a parallel inhibitory role in the immune system. We demonstrate that immune cells synthesize GABA and have the machinery for GABA catabolism. Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) express functional GABA receptors and respond electrophysiologically to GABA. Thus, the immune system harbors all(More)
Macrophages rapidly engulf apoptotic cells to limit the release of noxious cellular contents and to restrict autoimmune responses against self antigens. Although factors participating in recognition and engulfment of apoptotic cells have been identified, the transcriptional basis for the sensing and the silent disposal of apoptotic cells is unknown. Here we(More)
Activation of TLR9 by direct injection of unmethylated CpG nucleotides into a tumor can induce a therapeutic immune response; however, Tregs eventually inhibit the antitumor immune response and thereby limit the power of cancer immunotherapies. In tumor-bearing mice, we found that Tregs within the tumor preferentially express the cell surface markers CTLA-4(More)
The immune system has two major components, an innate arm and an adaptive arm. Certain autoimmune diseases of the brain represent examples of disorders where one of these constituents plays a major role. Some rare autoimmune diseases involve activation of the innate arm and include chronic infantile neurologic, cutaneous, articular (CINCA) syndrome. In(More)