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Twenty-four adults with phantom limb pain (PLP) and/or residual limb pain (RLP) participated in a double-blind crossover trial. Participants were randomly assigned to receive gabapentin or placebo and later crossed over to the other treatment, with a 5-week washout interval in which they did not receive medication. Gabapentin was titrated from 300 mg to the(More)
Two nearly equivalent models of multilevel security are presented. The use of multiple models permits the utilization of each model for purposes where that model is particularly advantageous. In this case, the more general model is simple and easily comprehensible, being more abstract, and is useful for exposition of the meaning of multilevel security. The(More)
This article reviews the epidemiology and classification of traumatic peripheral nerve injuries, the effects of these injuries on nerve and muscle, and how electrodiagnosis is used to help classify the injury. Mechanisms of recovery are also reviewed. Motor and sensory nerve conduction studies, needle electromyography, and other electrophysiological methods(More)
OBJECTIVES A systematic review of somatosensory evoked potentials performed early after onset of coma, to predict the likelihood of nonawakening. The pooled results were evaluated for rates of awakening, confidence intervals, and the possibility of rare exceptions. DATA SOURCES Forty-one articles reporting somatosensory evoked potentials in comatose(More)
A method for describing and structuring programs that simplifies proofs of their correctness is presented. The method formally represents a program in terms of levels of abstraction, each level of which can be described by a self-contained nonprocedural specification. The proofs, like the programs, are structured by levels. Although only manual proofs are(More)
Biopsychosocial models of chronic pain hypothesize a role for psychological and environmental factors in adjustment to chronic pain. To test the utility of such models for understanding phantom limb pain, 61 persons with recent amputations were administered measures of average phantom limb pain intensity, pain interference, depression, pain coping use, pain(More)
Somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) monitoring of thoracolumbar procedures typically includes posterior tibial and peroneal nerve recordings. The addition of femoral nerve SEP monitoring, however, should better predict the evolution of postoperative neurologic deficits affecting the midlumbar roots. To assess the value of intraoperative femoral SEPs, 26(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the clinical significance of changes in chronic pain in 2 disability groups: spinal cord injury and lower limb amputation. METHODS A reanalysis of 2 controlled clinical trials for pain in persons with disabilities. Eighty-two persons with spinal cord injuries and 34 persons with amputations provided pretreatment and posttreatment(More)
The P300 response is a cognitive event-related potential recorded over the scalp. The tone-evoked P300 response has been used to predict outcomes of patients with brain injury. However, it may lead to false predictions because some normal people have a very small tone-evoked P300 response. It is hypothesized that speech may generate a more robust P300(More)
This paper presents a general methodology for the design, implementation, and proof of large software systems, each described as a hierarchy of abstract machines. The design and implementation occur in five stages as described in this paper. Formal proof may take place at each stage. We expect the methodology to simplify the proof effort in such a way as to(More)