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The claustrum (Cl) is a subcortical structure located in the basolateral telencephalon of the mammalian brain. It has been a subject of inquiry since the mid-nineteenth century. The Cl can be identified in a number of species, and appears as a phylogenetically related nucleus in Insectivores, Prosimians and Marsupials. Ontogenetic investigations have been(More)
This paper present a new hypothesis as to the function of the claustrum. Our basic premise is that the claustrum functions as a detector and integrator of synchrony in the axonal trains in its afferent inputs. In the first place an unexpected stimulus sets up a processed signal to the sensory cortex that initiates a focus of synchronized gamma oscillations(More)
The presence of the calcium-binding protein (CaBP) parvalbumin (PV) in the neuronal elements of the cat's dorsal claustrum was studied by immunohistochemistry at the light- and electron-microscopic level. PV-immunoreactive neurons and fibers were detected in all parts of the claustrum. The PV-immunoreactive neurons were divided into several subtypes(More)
Plexiform neurofibromatosis of the liver was recognized by needle biopsy of the liver in an 11-yr-old boy who had a 2-yr history of diarrhea, intermittent abdominal pain, failure to gain weight and progressive abdominal distention. Imaging studies demonstrated a large retroperitoneal mass; a laparotomy was performed. At surgery, the mesentery was greatly(More)
Nitric oxide is a unique neurotransmitter, which participates in many physiological and pathological processes in the organism. Nevertheless there are little data about the neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase immunoreactive (nNOS-ir) neurons and fibers in the dorsal claustrum (DC) of a cat. In this respect the aims of this study were: (1) to demonstrate nNOS-ir(More)
The claustrum is a relatively large telencephalic structure, situated close to the border of the neo- and allocortical regions. Its neuronal population consists of glutamatergic, projecting neurons and GABA-ergic interneurons, characterized by occurrence of numerous additional biochemical markers. The postnatal development of these latter neurons has not(More)
This paper surveys two different mechanisms by which a presynaptic cell can modulate the structure and function of the postsynaptic cell. We first present the evidence that this occurs, and then discuss two mechanisms that could bring this about. The first hypothesis relates to the long lasting effects that the spike patterns of presynaptic axons may exert(More)