Lawrence R. Bernstein

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Gallium maltolate, tris(3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-onato)gallium (GaM), is an orally active gallium compound for therapeutic use. It is moderately soluble in water (10.7 +/- 0.9 mg/mL at 25 composite functionC) with an octanol partition coefficient of 0.41+/-0.08. The molecule is electrically neutral in aqueous solution at neutral pH; a dilute aqueous(More)
The objective of this study was to assess the ability of prophylactically administered gallium maltolate (GaM) to inhibit growth or kill Rhodococcus equi within murine macrophage-like (J774A.1) cells. Cells were treated with three different doses of GaM or a single dose of maltol (equivalent to the concentration present in the highest dose of GaM studied);(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics of gallium maltolate (GaM) after intragastric administration in healthy foals. ANIMALS 6 healthy neonatal foals. PROCEDURES Each foal received GaM (20 mg/kg) by intragastric administration. Blood samples were obtained before (time 0) and at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after GaM(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a particularly lethal cancer with few treatment options. Since gallium is known to accumulate specifically in HCC tumors but not in non-tumor liver, we investigated two gallium compounds, gallium nitrate (GaN) and gallium maltolate (GaM), as potential new agents for treating HCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS The(More)
Gallium is a trivalent semi-metallic element that has shown antimicrobial activity against several important human pathogens. This antimicrobial activity is likely related to its substitution in important iron-dependent pathways of bacteria. The genus Staphylococcus, which includes human and animal pathogens that cause significant morbidity and mortality,(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine serum and tissue concentrations of gallium (Ga) after oral administration of gallium nitrate (GaN) and gallium maltolate (GaM) to neonatal calves. ANIMALS 8 healthy neonatal calves. PROCEDURES Calves were assigned to 1 of 2 groups (4 calves/group). Gallium (50 mg/kg) was administered as GaN or GaM (equivalent to 13.15 mg of Ga/kg(More)
Strategies aimed at reducing fecal shedding of Salmonella and other foodborne pathogens may be effective for limiting transmission of pathogens from food animals to humans. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of gallium maltolate (GaM) against Salmonella in vitro and to determine whether oral administration of GaM would reduce(More)
Metallic gallium dissolves slowly in dilute mineral acids but rapidly in aqua regia and concentrated sodium hydroxide. In its compounds, the valency is +3. Its oxygen compounds resemble those of aluminum in that there are highand lowtemperature forms of Ga2O3 and two hydroxides, Ga(OH)3 and GaO·OH. Substances which lower the hydrogen ion concentration throw(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the chemoprophylactic effect of gallium maltolate on the cumulative incidence of pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi infection in foals. ANIMALS 483 foals born and raised on 12 equine breeding farms with a history of endemic R equi infections. PROCEDURES Group 1 foals were treated with a placebo and group 2 foals were treated(More)