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Remarkable diversity of size and health of offspring exists after normal pregnancies. When pregnancies are complicated by an extrinsic variable such as inappropriate maternal nutrition, birth weight and health of the neonate are substantially affected. The placenta is the organ through which respiratory gases, nutrients, and wastes are exchanged between the(More)
To evaluate the kinetics of luteal growth, bovine CL were obtained from four stages (stage I, Days 1-4; stage II, Days 5-10; stage III, Days 11-17; stage IV, Days 18-21) of the estrous cycle, and luteal fresh weight as well as DNA, protein, and progesterone contents was determined. To evaluate the relative rate of cell proliferation, proliferating cell(More)
The mammalian placenta is the organ through which respiratory gases, nutrients, and wastes are exchanged between the maternal and fetal systems. Thus, transplacental exchange provides for all the metabolic demands of fetal growth and development. The rate of transplacental exchange depends primarily on the rates of uterine (maternal placental) and umbilical(More)
The placenta is the organ that transports nutrients, respiratory gases, and wastes between the maternal and fetal systems. Consequently, placental blood flow and vascular development are essential components of normal placental function and are critical to fetal growth and development. Normal fetal growth and development are important to ensure optimum(More)
The study of the development of the fetal membranes is an ancient one, and the importance of placental vascular development to placental function has long been recognized. Animal models have been important in these studies, as they allow for controlled experiments and analysis of multiple time-points during pregnancy. Since the demonstration nearly 20 years(More)
Because the placenta is the organ that transports nutrients, respiratory gases and wastes between the maternal and fetal systems, development of its vascular beds is essential to normal placental function, and thus in supporting normal fetal growth. Compromised fetal growth and development have adverse health consequences during the neonatal period and(More)
To compare 2 hormonal protocols for submission of lactating dairy cows for timed artificial insemination (TAI), nonpregnant lactating Holstein cows (n = 269) >60 d in milk were randomly assigned to each of 2 treatments to receive TAI (TAI = d 0). Cows assigned to the first treatment (Ovsynch, n = 134) received 50 microg of GnRH (d -10), 25 mg of PGF2alpha(More)
Because of rapid growth followed by spontaneous regression, the ovarian corpus luteum (CL) is an excellent model to study angiogenesis in vivo. To evaluate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein during luteal development, ovaries were collected from FSH-stimulated ewes throughout the estrous cycle. VEGF was immunolocalized in(More)
The rate of fetal growth and subsequent birth weight are major determinants of postnatal survival and growth. Because the placenta is the organ through which respiratory gases, nutrients, and wastes are transported between the maternal and fetal systems, its primary function is to supply the metabolic substrates necessary to support fetal growth. Placental(More)