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The energetics associated with the photoequilibrium (Formula: see text) are measured at 77 K by using pulsed-laser photocalorimetry and a range of excitation wavelengths and relative starting concentrations. Enthalpies for the photochemical transformations R hv----B and I hv----B are measured to be delta HRB = 32.2 +/- 0.9 kcal mol-1 and delta HIB = 27.1(More)
We consider the particle smoothing problem for state-space models where the transition density is not available in closed form, in particular for continuous-time, nonlinear models expressed via stochastic differential equations (SDEs). Conventional forward-backward and two-filter smoothers for the particle filter require a closed-form transition density,(More)
The nature of the primary photochemical events in rhodopsin and isorhodopsin is studied by using low temperature actinometry, low temperature absorption spectroscopy, and intermediate neglect of differential overlap including partial single and double configuration interaction (INDO-PSDCI) molecular orbital theory. The principal goal is a better(More)
We studied the nature of the protein binding site of rhodopsin, using two-photon spectroscopy to assign the location of the low-lying "covalent" 1Ag*- -like pi pi * state in a model rhodopsin containing a locked-11-cis chromophore. The two-photon thermal lens maximum is observed at 22,800 cm-1, approximately equal to 2000 cm-1 above the one-photon(More)
In this study, we evaluated vaccination with a number of purified, as well as recombinant, Mycobacterium leprae proteins for protective efficacy in mice. BALB/c mice were immunized intradermally with various native somatic (purified) or recombinant M. leprae proteins and their synthetic polypeptides emulsified in Freund's incomplete adjuvant. The protective(More)
We consider the use of commodity graphics processing units (GPUs) for the common task of numerically integrating ordinary differential equations (ODEs), achieving speedups of up to 115-fold over comparable serial CPU implementations, and 15-fold over multithreaded CPU code with SIMD intrinsics. Using Lorenz '96 models as a case study, single and double(More)
We found that in the years 1978 through 1981 only one of 54 previously untreated patients with Hansen's disease was found to harbor dapsone-resistant Mycobacterium leprae. That single strain was only partially resistant, ie, it was resistant to 0.0001% dapsone in a mouse diet but not to higher concentrations. During the years 1983 through 1988, M leprae(More)