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1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) causes degeneration of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway in several animal species, including humans, monkeys and mice. Changes observed after MPTP administration include marked decrements in the neostriatal content of dopamine and its major metabolites, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic(More)
Two aryl 1,4-dialkylpiperazines (GBR 12909 and GBR 13098) and one aryl 1,4-dialkenylpiperazine (GBR 13069) were very potent inhibitors of [3H]dopamine uptake in vitro in tissue slices obtained from rat neostriatum (IC50 values between 40 and 51 nM). Each compound was considerably weaker as an inhibitor of [3H]norepinephrine uptake in tissue slices obtained(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with loss of total glutathione (GSH) which may contribute to progressive cell death. Peripheral GSH administration has been used clinically with reported benefits. Despite this, there is little specific information to characterize its cellular uptake or clearance, brain elevation with peripheral delivery or(More)
In vitro studies indicate that mesencephalic dopamine neurons are more vulnerable than other neurons to impairment of energy metabolism. Such findings may have bearing on the loss of dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease, in which mitochondrial deficiencies have been identified, but would only be relevant if the selective vulnerability were maintained in(More)
In rats with a unilateral lesion of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway, the ipsilateral rotation produced by the enhanced actions of endogenous dopamine (DA) on the nonlesioned side, induced by either the DA-releasing drug amphetamine or the DA uptake inhibitor GBR 13069, was blocked effectively by pretreatment with either the selective D1 DA receptor(More)
This study examined whether damage to dopamine (DA) nerve terminals via inhibition of energy metabolism in the striatum would result in the retrograde loss of cell bodies in the substantia nigra. Infusion of 2 micromol malonate into the left striatum of rats resulted in a 67% loss of striatal DA and a 40% loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons(More)
Previous studies from this laboratory demonstrated that (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate (MK-801), an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, did not prevent neurotoxicity to dopaminergic neurons in mice produced by systemic treatment with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). However, Turski(More)
The neurotoxic actions of methamphetamine (METH) may be mediated in part by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Methamphetamine administration leads to increases in ROS formation and lipid peroxidation in rodent brain; however, the extent to which proteins may be modified or whether affected brain regions exhibit similar elevations of lipid and protein oxidative(More)
Mitochondrial dysfunction is observed in sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) and may contribute to progressive neurodegeneration. While acute models of mitochondrial dysfunction have been used for many years to investigate PD, chronic models may better replicate the cellular disturbances caused by long-standing mitochondrial derangements and may represent a(More)