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A single transcript in its unspliced and spliced forms directs the synthesis of all HIV-1 proteins. Although nuclear export of intron-containing cellular transcripts is restricted in mammalian cells, HIV-1 has evolved the viral Rev protein to overcome this restriction for viral transcripts. Previously, CRM1 was identified as a cellular cofactor for(More)
Despite its poorly adapted codon usage, HIV-1 replicates and is expressed extremely well in human host cells. HIV-1 has recently been shown to package non-lysyl transfer RNAs (tRNAs) in addition to the tRNA(Lys) needed for priming reverse transcription and integration of the HIV-1 genome. By comparing the codon usage of HIV-1 genes with that of its human(More)
The tRNAs used to prime reverse transcription in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), and Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MuLV) are, tRNA(Trp), and tRNA(Pro), respectively. Using antibodies to the three cognate human aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, we found that only lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LysRS) is present in HIV-1, only(More)
We have studied the presence and significance of retroviral genome-derived DNA in the core of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) particles produced from transfections of HXB2 expression vectors in COS-7 cells and from HIV type 1 IIIB chronically infected H9 cells. Viruses purified by sucrose cushion centrifugation and treated with DNase I contained(More)
The primer tRNA for reverse transcription in HIV-1, tRNALys3, is selectively packaged into the virus during its assembly, and annealed to the viral genomic RNA. The ribonucleoprotein complex that is involved in the packaging and annealing of tRNALys into HIV-1 consists of Gag, GagPol, tRNALys, lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LysRS), and viral genomic RNA. Gag(More)
Helicases contribute to diverse biological processes including replication, transcription and translation. Recent reports suggest that unwinding of some helicases display repetitive activity, yet the functional role of the repetitiveness requires further investigation. Using single-molecule fluorescence assays, we elucidated a unique unwinding mechanism of(More)
tRNALys3 annealing to the viral RNA of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is an essential step in the virus life cycle, because this tRNA serves as the primer for initiating reverse transcription. tRNALys3 annealing to viral RNA occurs in two steps. First, Gag promotes annealing of tRNALys3 to the viral RNA during cytoplasmic HIV-1 assembly.(More)