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A single transcript in its unspliced and spliced forms directs the synthesis of all HIV-1 proteins. Although nuclear export of intron-containing cellular transcripts is restricted in mammalian cells, HIV-1 has evolved the viral Rev protein to overcome this restriction for viral transcripts. Previously, CRM1 was identified as a cellular cofactor for(More)
The dense-bodies in the body wall muscle of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans function to anchor the actin thin filaments to the adjacent sarcolemma. One of the major components of the dense-bodies is the actin-binding protein alpha-actinin. To facilitate a genetic analysis of alpha-actinin, we have cloned a cDNA encoding the nematode protein, identified(More)
COS-7 cells transfected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) proviral DNA produce virus in which three tRNA species are most abundant in the viral tRNA population. These tRNAs have been identified through RNA sequencing techniques as tRNA(3Lys) the primer tRNA in HIV-1, and members of the tRNA(1,2Lys) isoacceptor family. These RNAs represent 60%(More)
We have identified the tRNAs which are incorporated into both wild-type human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strain IIIB (HIV-1IIIB) produced in COS-7 cells transfected with HIV-1 proviral DNA and mutant, noninfectious HIV-1Lai particles produced in a genetically engineered Vero cell line. The mutant proviral DNA contains nucleotides 678 to 8944; i.e., both(More)
Human APOBEC3G (hA3G) has been identified as an anti-HIV-1 host factor. The presence of hA3G in HIV-1 strongly inhibits the ability of the virus to produce new viral DNA upon infection. In this report, we demonstrate that the reduction of late viral DNA synthesis is due to the inhibition by hA3G of the strand transfer steps that occur during reverse(More)
The dimerization initiation site (DIS), downstream of the long terminal repeat within the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genome, can form a stem-loop structure (SL1) that has been shown to be involved in the packaging of viral RNA. In order to further determine the role of this region in the virus life cycle, we deleted the 16 nucleotides (nt)(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genomic RNA primer-binding site (PBS) sequence comprises 18 nucleotides which are complementary to those at the 3' end of the replication initiation primer tRNA(3Lys). To investigate the role of the PBS in viral replication, we either deleted the original wild-type PBS (complementary to tRNA(3Lys) or replaced it with(More)
Retroviral reverse transcription starts near the 5' end of unspliced viral RNA at a sequence called the primer binding site (PBS), where the tRNA primer anneals to the RNA template for initiation of DNA synthesis. We have investigated the roles of NCp7 in annealing of primer tRNA(Lys3) to the PBS and in reverse transcriptase (RT) activity, using a cell-free(More)
In protease-negative human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) [Pr(-)], the amount of tRNA(3)(Lys) annealed by Gag is modestly reduced ( approximately 25%) compared to that annealed by mature nucleocapsid (NCp7) in protease-positive HIV-1 [Pr(+)]. However, the tRNA(3)(Lys) annealed by Gag also has a strongly reduced ability to initiate reverse(More)
Cells are categorized as being permissive or nonpermissive according to their ability to produce infectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) lacking the viral protein Vif. Nonpermissive cells express the human cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G (hA3G), and Vif has been shown to bind to APOBEC3G and facilitate its degradation. Vif-negative HIV-1 virions(More)