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BACKGROUND Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a debilitating disease of cattle. Ethiopia has one of the largest cattle populations in the world, with an economy highly dependent on its livestock. Furthermore, Ethiopia has one of the highest incidence rates of human extrapulmonary TB in the world, a clinical presentation that is(More)
A cross-sectional study of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) detected by the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT) was conducted in livestock of the Somali region in southeast Ethiopia—in four pastoral associations from January to August 2009. In 94 herds, each of 15 cattle, camels, and goats was tested per herd leading to a total of 1,418 CIDT tested(More)
BACKGROUND RTS,S/AS02 is a pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccine based on the circumsporozoite surface protein of Plasmodium falciparum fused to HBsAg, incorporating a new adjuvant (AS02). We did a randomised trial of the efficacy of RTS,S/AS02 against natural P. falciparum infection in semi-immune adult men in The Gambia. METHODS 306 men aged 18-45 years were(More)
Plasmodium vivax accounts for about 40% of all malaria infection in Ethiopia. Chloroquine (CQ) is the first line treatment for confirmed P. vivax malaria in the country. The first report of CQ treatment failure in P. vivax was from Debre Zeit, which suggested the presence of chloroquine resistance. An in vivo drug efficacy study was conducted in Debre Zeit(More)
Malaria infection in pregnancy has serious health consequences among mothers and offspring. The influence of placental malaria infection on foetal outcome was studied in a Gambian rural setting where few pregnant women take antimalarial chemoprophylaxis. During July-December 1997, three hundred thirteen mother-newborn pairs (singletons only) were(More)
A cross-sectional study of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) was conducted in pastoral cattle herds in southern Ethiopia, from February to August 2008 using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test. The prevalence of BTB and the risk factors for having positive reactor herds were assessed in four pastoral associations in two districts of southern Ethiopia,(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the rates of, and risk factors for, mother-to-child transmission (MCT) of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection in The Gambia. DESIGN A blinded, prospective, community-based cohort study of 29.549 pregnant women attending the eight largest antenatal clinics in The Gambia. METHODS Women were tested for HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection. Infected(More)
Molecular typing of 964 specimens from patients in Ethiopia with lymph node or pulmonary tuberculosis showed a similar distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains between the 2 disease manifestations and a minimal role for M. bovis. We report a novel phylogenetic lineage of M. tuberculosis strongly associated with the Horn of Africa.
Ethiopia reports the third highest number of extrapulmonary TB cases globally, most of which are lymph node TB (TBLN). We investigated the performance of the available diagnostic tests for TBLN. Fine needle aspirate (FNA) and excision biopsy samples from affected lymph nodes were collected from 150 consenting patients with suspected TBLN visiting regional(More)
BACKGROUND To assess and compare the prevalence, severity and prognosis of anti-TB drug induced hepatotoxicity (DIH) in HIV positive and HIV negative tuberculosis (TB) patients in Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS In this study, 103 HIV positive and 94 HIV negative TB patients were enrolled. All patients were evaluated for different risk factors(More)