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Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by insulin resistance and pancreatic beta cell dysfunction. In high-risk subjects, the earliest detectable abnormality is insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Impaired insulin-mediated signaling, gene expression, glycogen synthesis, and accumulation of intramyocellular triglycerides have all been linked with(More)
To determine the dose-response characteristics for the effects of insulin on glucose production, glucose utilization, and overall glucose metabolism in normal man, 15 healthy subjects were infused with insulin for 8 h at sequential rates ranging from 0.2 to 5.0 mU.kg-1.min-1; each rate was used for 2 h. Glucose production and utilization were measured(More)
For many years, the Randle glucose fatty acid cycle has been invoked to explain insulin resistance in skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes or obesity. Increased fat oxidation was hypothesized to reduce glucose metabolism. The results of a number of investigations have shown that artificially increasing fat oxidation by provision of excess lipid(More)
The broad nature of insulin resistant glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes suggests a defect in the proximal part of the insulin signaling network. We sought to identify the pathways compromised in insulin resistance and to test the effect of moderate exercise on whole-body and cellular insulin action. We conducted(More)
The diminished ability of insulin to promote glucose disposal and storage in muscle has been ascribed to impaired activation of glycogen synthase (GS). It is possible that decreased glucose storage could occur as a consequence of decreased glucose uptake, and that GS is impaired secondarily. Muscle glucose uptake in 15 diabetic subjects was matched to 15(More)
The present studies were undertaken to assess the mechanism by which insulin increases glucose uptake in man. Because glucose uptake in most mammalian tissues occurs predominantly by a facilitated transport system that follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics, glucose uptake was measured isotopically in normal volunteers over the physiologic range of plasma(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS This study aimed to identify genes that are expressed in skeletal muscle, encode proteins with functional significance in mitochondria, and are associated with type 2 diabetes. METHODS We screened for differentially expressed genes in skeletal muscle of Psammomys obesus (Israeli sand rats), and prioritised these on the basis of genomic(More)
To determine whether 1) insulin stimulates pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and glycogen synthase (GS) in isolated human adipocytes and 2) adipocytes from subjects with obesity or noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) are resistant to the effects of insulin, PDH and GS were assayed in adipocytes from 11 control, 8 obese, and 9 NIDDM subjects. Basal PDH(More)