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Neural responses are typically characterized by computing the mean firing rate, but response variability can exist across trials. Many studies have examined the effect of a stimulus on the mean response, but few have examined the effect on response variability. We measured neural variability in 13 extracellularly recorded datasets and one intracellularly(More)
A gain field, the scaling of a tuned neuronal response by a postural signal, may help support neuronal computation. Here, we characterize eye and hand position gain fields in the parietal reach region (PRR). Eye and hand gain fields in individual PRR neurons are similar in magnitude but opposite in sign to one another. This systematic arrangement produces a(More)
During a shift of gaze, an object can move along with gaze or stay fixed in the world. To examine the effect of an object's reference frame on spatial working memory, we trained monkeys to memorize locations of visual stimuli as either fixed in the world or fixed to gaze. Each trial consisted of an initial reference frame instruction, followed by a(More)
The sensorimotor transformations for visually guided reaching were originally thought to take place in a series of discrete transitions from one systematic frame of reference to the next with neurons coding location relative to the fixation position (gaze-centered) in occipital and posterior parietal areas, relative to the shoulder in dorsal premotor(More)
When primates reach for an object, they very often direct an eye movement toward the object as well. This pattern of directing both eye and limb movements to the same object appears to be fundamental to eye-hand coordination. We investigated interactions between saccades and reaching movements in a rhesus monkey model system. The amplitude and peak velocity(More)
Primates frequently reach toward visual targets. Neurons in early visual areas respond to stimuli in the contralateral visual hemifield and without regard to which limb will be used to reach toward that target. In contrast, neurons in motor areas typically respond when reaches are performed using the contralateral limb and with minimal regard to the(More)
We decoded on a trial-by-trial basis the location of visual targets, as a marker of the locus of attention, and intentions to reach and to saccade in different directions using the activity of neurons in the posterior parietal cortex of two monkeys. Predictions of target locations were significantly worse than predictions of movement plans for the same(More)
A localized cluster of neurons in macaque posterior parietal cortex, termed the parietal reach region (PRR), is activated when a reach is planned to a visible or remembered target. To explore the role of PRR in sensorimotor transformations, we tested whether cells would be activated when a reach is planned to an as-yet unspecified goal. Over one-third of(More)
The primate posterior parietal cortex (PPC), part of the dorsal visual pathway, is best known for its role in encoding salient spatial information. Yet there are indications that neural activity in the PPC can also be modulated by nonspatial task-related information. In this study, we tested whether neurons in the PPC encode signals related to cognitive(More)
To examine the distribution of visual and oculomotor activity across the macaque brain, we performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on awake, behaving monkeys trained to perform visually guided saccades. Two subjects alternated between periods of making saccades and central fixations while blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) images were(More)