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We have studied the organization of receptive fields of ganglion cells in the isolated mouse retina and have shown that the organization is similar to that of the cat. Based upon responses to circular and annular stimuli, most ganglion cells (90%; N = 83) had receptive fields with concentric center-surround organization, either ON or OFF center. The plot of(More)
1. The metallochromic indicator dye, arsenazo III, was injected intracellularly into Limulus ventral photoreceptor cells to concentrations greater than 1 mM.2. The absorption spectrum (450-750 nm) of the dye in single dark-adapted cells was measured by a scanning microspectrophotometer. When a cell was light-adapted, the absorption of the dye changed; the(More)
As a complementary approach to positional cloning, we used in vivo complementation with bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones expressed in transgenic mice to identify the circadian Clock gene. A 140 kb BAC transgene completely rescued both the long period and the loss-of-rhythm phenotypes in Clock mutant mice. Analysis with overlapping BAC transgenes(More)
Retinal projections to the pretectal and terminal accessory optic nuclei were studied in normal wild-type mice and mutant mice with abnormal optokinetic nystagmus (OKN, Mangini, Vanable, Williams, and Pinto: J. Comp. Neurol. 241:191-209, '85). The mutants used were pearl, which exhibits an inverted OKN in response to stimulation of only the temporal retina,(More)
1. Isolated bipolar cells were obtained by enzymic (papain) dissociation of the adult mouse retina. The membrane voltage was clamped and the membrane currents were measured by the whole-cell version of the patch-clamp technique. Isolated bipolar cells and horizontal cells of the goldfish retina were also studied for comparison. 2. Hyperpolarization from the(More)
To apply the approach of forward genetics (e.g., gene identification with mutagenesis and screening, followed by positional cloning) to the mouse, it is necessary to have available screening tests that can be applied rapidly to individual mice and that give a reliable assessment of visual function. This paper reviews the strengths and limitations of two(More)
Significant developments have occurred in our understanding of the mammalian genome thanks to informatics, expression profiling and sequencing of the human and rodent genomes. However, although these facets of genomic analysis are being addressed, analysis of in vivo gene function remains a formidable task. Evaluation of the phenotype of mutants provides(More)
The functional role of the delayed rectifier potassium channels is reviewed and the specific roles that these channels play in the retina is enumerated in examples using retinal neurons. These channels are contrasted with other types of potassium channels. The reasons why several types of delayed rectifier molecules could be expected to be expressed in a(More)
Immunocytochemical methods were used to compare the GABA system in control mice and two mutant strains: spastic which has reduced glycine receptors and retinal degeneration mutant in which the photoreceptors degenerate and reportedly have increased GABA and GAD levels. We found that the spastic mutant retina had reduced GABA-immunoreactivity (IR) in the(More)
An electroretinogram (ERG) screen identified a mouse with a normal a-wave but lacking a b-wave, and as such it was designated no b-wave3 (nob3). The nob3 phenotype mapped to chromosome 11 in a region containing the metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 gene (Grm6). Sequence analyses of cDNA identified a splicing error in Grm6, introducing an insertion and an(More)