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In a search for genes that regulate circadian rhythms in mammals, the progeny of mice treated with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) were screened for circadian clock mutations. A semidominant mutation, Clock, that lengthens circadian period and abolishes persistence of rhythmicity was identified. Clock segregated as a single gene that mapped to the midportion of(More)
As a complementary approach to positional cloning, we used in vivo complementation with bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones expressed in transgenic mice to identify the circadian Clock gene. A 140 kb BAC transgene completely rescued both the long period and the loss-of-rhythm phenotypes in Clock mutant mice. Analysis with overlapping BAC transgenes(More)
1. Membrane potentials were recorded from single rods in the isolated retina of Bufo marinus while the ionic composition of the extracellular medium was rapidly changed. Substitution of 2 mM aspartate(-) for Cl(-) produced a prompt depolarization of horizontal cells, but no modification of either resting potential or response to light in receptor cells.(More)
1. The metallochromic indicator dye, arsenazo III, was injected intracellularly into Limulus ventral photoreceptor cells to concentrations greater than 1 mM.2. The absorption spectrum (450-750 nm) of the dye in single dark-adapted cells was measured by a scanning microspectrophotometer. When a cell was light-adapted, the absorption of the dye changed; the(More)
The influenza virus M2 protein was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and shown to have an associated ion channel activity selective for monovalent ions. The anti-influenza virus drug amantadine hydrochloride significantly attenuated the inward current induced by hyperpolarization of oocyte membranes. Mutations in the M2 membrane-spanning domain that(More)
The M2 protein from influenza A virus forms proton-selective channels that are essential to viral function and are the target of the drug amantadine. Cys scanning was used to generate a series of mutants with successive substitutions in the transmembrane segment of the protein, and the mutants were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The effect of the(More)
Clock is a semidominant mutation identified from an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis screen in mice. Mice carrying the Clock mutation exhibit abnormalities of circadian behavior, including lengthening of endogenous period and loss of rhythmicity. To identify the gene affected by this mutation, we have generated a high-resolution genetic map (> 1800(More)
We have studied the organization of receptive fields of ganglion cells in the isolated mouse retina and have shown that the organization is similar to that of the cat. Based upon responses to circular and annular stimuli, most ganglion cells (90%; N = 83) had receptive fields with concentric center-surround organization, either ON or OFF center. The plot of(More)
We tested the optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) reflex of various hypopigmented mutant mice and ultrastructurally examined the pigmentation of various ocular structures in these mutants. Using electron microscopy we examined the pigmentation of the choroid and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and measured the numerical density, volume density, and distribution of(More)