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BACKGROUND Hormonally active environmental agents have been measured among U.S. children using exposure biomarkers in urine. However, little is known about their variation by race, age, sex, and geography, and no data exist for newly developed biomarkers. OBJECTIVE Our goal was to characterize relevant, prevalent exposures for a study of female pubertal(More)
BACKGROUND Hormonally active environmental agents may alter the course of pubertal development in girls, which is controlled by steroids and gonadotropins. OBJECTIVES We investigated associations of concurrent exposures from three chemical classes (phenols, phthalates, and phytoestrogens) with pubertal stages in a multiethnic longitudinal study of 1,151(More)
OBJECTIVE Whether dietary patterns, rather than single foods or nutrients, are associated with breast density is not known. We investigated this in the Minnesota Breast Cancer Family Study. METHODS Participants completed a 153-item food frequency questionnaire and provided screening mammograms for breast density assessment using a computer-assisted(More)
Mediterranean populations' lower breast cancer incidence has been attributed to a traditional Mediterranean diet, but few studies have quantified Mediterranean dietary pattern intake in relation to breast cancer. We examined the association of a Mediterranean diet scale (MDS) with mammographic breast density as a surrogate marker for breast cancer risk.(More)
Flavonoids, a group of phenolic compounds found in fruits and vegetables, are known to have antioxidant properties. They prevent low density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro and thus may play a role in the prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD). In 1986, in a prospective study of 34,492 postmenopausal women in Iowa, the authors examined the association of(More)
INTRODUCTION The aim of this study was to describe breast tumor subtypes by common breast cancer risk factors and to determine correlates of subtypes using baseline data from two pooled prospective breast cancer studies within a large health maintenance organization. METHODS Tumor data on 2544 invasive breast cancer cases subtyped by estrogen receptor,(More)
Although tumor size and lymph node involvement are the current cornerstones of breast cancer prognosis, they have not been extensively explored in relation to tumor methylation attributes in conjunction with other tumor and patient dietary and hormonal characteristics. Using primary breast tumors from 162 (AJCC stage I-IV) women from the Kaiser Division of(More)
BACKGROUND Neighborhood environments affect children's health outcomes. Observational methods used to assess neighborhoods can be categorized as indirect, intermediate, or direct. Direct methods, involving in-person audits of the neighborhoods conducted by trained observers, are recognized as an accurate representation of current neighborhood conditions.(More)
BACKGROUND Breast cancer survivors are less likely to be employed than similar healthy women, yet effects of employment on the well being of survivors are largely unknown. In a prospective cohort study of 2013 women diagnosed from 2006 to 2011 with invasive breast cancer in Kaiser Permanente Northern California, we describe associations between hours worked(More)