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STUDY OBJECTIVES Sleep patterns of young adults are different from those of other age groups.. This study examined sleep patterns of cadets during their first year at the United States Military Academy. DESIGN This paper presents initial results of a 4-year longitudinal investigation into sleep patterns of college-age men and women. SETTING Data were(More)
are examples of distributed supervisory control systems. Distributed supervisory control systems are hierarchical and cooperative. They include remote supervisors who work through intelligent local actors to control some process. With this framework, human supervisors, designers, and procedure writers can all be viewed as remote supervisors who provide(More)
Modern warfare has witnessed the proliferation of coalition efforts to contain terrorism. To be successful, these efforts rely upon the effective integration of human and technological agents. Typically, models and analyses of network centric warfare (NCW) focus on technological aspects of a system, eschewing the roles, contributions and decisions made by(More)
— This review examines the effects of military training regimes, which might include some degree of sleep deprivation, on sleep–wake schedules. We report a 4-year longitudinal study of sleep patterns of cadets at the United States Military Academy and the consequences of an extension of sleep from 6 to 8 hr per night at the United States Navy ' s Recruit(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES The study provided an opportunity to observe sleep patterns in a college-age population attending the United States Military Academy. DESIGN This 4-year longitudinal study investigated sleep patterns of cadets. A stratified sample of 80 cadets had sleep patterns monitored using actigraphy for 8 months: one month in both fall and spring(More)
Forty-nine U.S. Army officers with recent combat experience were surveyed to assess their units' sleep patterns and to determine the tactics, techniques, and procedures used to counter the effects of sleep deprivation in their units. Despite Army policy requiring units to develop and implement sleep management plans, nearly 80% of the participants reported(More)
Naturalistic decision making (NDM) has become established as a methodological and theoretical perspective. It describes how practitioners actually make decisions in complex domains. However, NDM theories tend to focus on the human agents in the system. We extend the NDM perspective to include the technological agents in complex systems and introduce the(More)
Technologists and human factors practitioners tend to approach the measurement of situation awareness from different perspectives. Technologists compare the difference between the data available in the environment with what has been detected by the sensors built into a system. Human factors practitioners focus on perception and cognition to the exclusion of(More)
Complex systems will, inevitably, experience failures. The cause of these failures or mishaps may be labeled 'operator error,' but often they are actually caused by the confluence of technological, situational, individual, and organizational factors. Several models and theories of human error have been proposed over the years and are reviewed in this paper.(More)
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