Lawrence Friedman

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A workshop was held September 27 through 29, 1999, to address issues relating to national trends in mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular diseases; the apparent slowing of declines in mortality from cardiovascular diseases; levels and trends in risk factors for cardiovascular diseases; disparities in cardiovascular diseases by race/ethnicity,(More)
We report on recommendations from a National Institutes of Health Workshop on methods for evaluating the use of surrogate endpoints in clinical trials, which was attended by experts in biostatistics and clinical trials from a broad array of disease areas. Recent advances in biosciences and technology have increased the ability to understand, measure, and(More)
The realization that bias in patient selection may influence the results of clinical studies has helped to establish the randomized controlled clinical trial in medical research. However, bias can be equally important at other stages of a trial, especially at the time of analysis. Withdrawing patients from consideration in the analysis because of(More)
BACKGROUND Predicting individual risk is needed to target preventive interventions toward people with the highest probability of benefit over a given time period. We assessed which prognostic factors should be used in predicting risk for hypertensive patients and in searching for treatment modifiers. METHODS AND RESULTS Data from 24 390 hypertensive(More)
C oncerns about adverse events, including deaths, in recent large clinical trials, both publicly and privately sponsored, prompted Elias A. discuss " Moving from Observational Studies to Clinical Trials: Why Do We Sometimes Get It Wrong? " (a detailed summary and video archive of the meeting are available at http:⁄⁄www. "(More)
Should clinical trial pilot studies be reported? Thebane, Ma, Chu, et al. argue in their discussion of the conduct of pilot studies, that they should be published [1]. Others, such as the editorialist for The Diabetes Educator, take a more cautious approach to publishing pilot studies [2]. I agree with those who advocate publication. I might also note that(More)
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