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Cilia play an essential role in protecting the respiratory tract by providing the force necessary for mucociliary clearance. Although the major structural components of human cilia have been described, a complete understanding of cilia function and regulation will require identification and characterization of all ciliary components. Estimates from studies(More)
Neuronal specification occurs at the periventricular surface of the embryonic central nervous system. During early postnatal periods, radial glial cells in various ventricular zones of the brain differentiate into ependymal cells and astrocytes. However, mechanisms that drive this time- and cell-specific differentiation remain largely unknown. Here, we show(More)
Many of the vectors being investigated for gene therapy utilize viral promoters or promoters from ubiquitously expressed genes (e.g., CMV, beta-actin). These promoters are active in many cell types and generally result in high levels of transgene expression. However, the use of these promoters for gene therapy of cystic fibrosis (CF) may produce undesirable(More)
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetically heterogeneous, autosomal-recessive disorder, characterized by oto-sino-pulmonary disease and situs abnormalities. PCD-causing mutations have been identified in 14 genes, but they collectively account for only ~60% of all PCD. To identify mutations that cause PCD, we performed exome sequencing on six(More)
To identify genes upregulated during the process of ciliated cell differentiation of airway epithelial cells, differential display was used to compare RNA from rat tracheal epithelial (RTE) cells cultured under conditions that inhibit/promote ciliated cell differentiation. Several partial complementary DNAs (cDNAs) were identified whose expression was(More)
We have reported that transin RNA, a 1.9-kb RNA coding for a novel, secreted proteinase, was overexpressed during the progression of benign mouse skin papillomas to malignant squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) induced by a two-stage protocol (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:9413, 1986). Recently a high degree of similarity has been demonstrated between rabbit(More)
The identity of the endogenous epithelial cells in the adult lung that are responsible for normal turnover and repair after injury is still controversial. In part, this is due to a paucity of highly specific genetic lineage tools to follow efficiently the fate of the major epithelial cell populations: the basal, secretory, ciliated, neuroendocrine, and(More)
Organisms that have cilia or flagella express over a dozen dynein heavy chain genes. Of these heavy chain genes, most appear to encode axonemal dyneins, one encodes conventional cytoplasmic dynein (MAP1C or DHC1a), and one, here referred to as DHC1b, encodes an unclassified heavy chain. Previous analysis of sea urchin DHC1b (Gibbons et al. (1994) Mol. Biol.(More)
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetic disease characterized by abnormal ciliary structure and function, impaired mucociliary clearance, and chronic middle ear, sinus, and lung disease. PCD is associated with situs inversus in approximately 50% of the patients. One proposed explanation for this relationship is that normal ciliary function plays a(More)
Cilia play essential roles in normal human development and health; cilia dysfunction results in diseases such as primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). Despite their importance, the native structure of human cilia is unknown, and structural defects in the cilia of patients are often undetectable or remain elusive because of heterogeneity. Here we develop an(More)