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Chloride concentrations are increasing at a rate that threatens the availability of fresh water in the northeastern United States. Increases in roadways and deicer use are now salinizing fresh waters, degrading habitat for aquatic organisms, and impacting large supplies of drinking water for humans throughout the region. We observed chloride concentrations(More)
Urban landscapes contain a mix of land-use types with different patterns of nitrogen (N) cycling and export. We measured nitrate (NO(3)(-)) leaching and soil:atmosphere nitrous oxide (N(2)O) flux in four urban grassland and eight forested long-term study plots in the Baltimore, Maryland metropolitan area. We evaluated ancillary controls on these fluxes by(More)
[1] Shallow landslides are a significant hazard in steep, soil-mantled landscapes. During intense rainfall events, the distribution of shallow landslides is controlled by variations in landscape gradient, the frictional and cohesive properties of soil and roots, and the subsurface hydrologic response. While gradients can be estimated from digital elevation(More)
We investigated regional effects of urbanization and land use change on nitrate concentrations in approximately 1,000 small streams in Maryland during record drought and wet years in 2001-2003. We also investigated changes in nitrate-N export during the same time period in 8 intensively monitored small watersheds across an urbanization gradient in(More)
Riparian zones have been found to function as "sinks" for nitrate (NO3-), the most common groundwater pollutant in the U. S., in many areas. The vast majority of riparian research, however, has focused on agricultural watersheds. There has been little analysis of riparian zones in urban watersheds, despite the fact that urban areas are important sources of(More)
Nonpoint source nitrogen (N) pollution is a leading contributor to U.S. water quality impairments. We combined watershed N mass balances and stable isotopes to investigate fate and transport of nonpoint N in forest, agricultural, and urbanized watersheds at the Baltimore Long-Term Ecological Research site. Annual N retention was 55%, 68%, and 82% for(More)
[1] The adjustment of local vegetation conditions to limiting soil water by either maximizing productivity or minimizing water stress has been an area of central interest in ecohydrology since Eagleson's classic study. This work has typically been limited to consider one-dimensional exchange and cycling within patches and has not incorporated the effects of(More)
Thousands of confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have been constructed in eastern North Carolina. The fecal waste pit and spray field waste management systems used by these operations are susceptible to flooding in this low-lying region. To investigate the potential that flood events can lead to environmental dispersion of animal wastes containing(More)
Conservation in urban areas typically focuses on biodiversity and large green spaces. However, opportunities exist throughout urban areas to enhance ecological functions. An important function of urban landscapes is retaining nitrogen thereby reducing nitrate pollution to streams and coastal waters. Control of nonpoint nitrate pollution in urban areas was(More)
The concentration of materials and energy within cities is an inevitable consequence of dense populations and their per capita requirements for food, fiber, and fuel. As the world population becomes increasingly urban over the coming decades, urban areas will dramatically affect the distribution of nutrients across the face of the planet. In many cities,(More)