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Chloride concentrations are increasing at a rate that threatens the availability of fresh water in the northeastern United States. Increases in roadways and deicer use are now salinizing fresh waters, degrading habitat for aquatic organisms, and impacting large supplies of drinking water for humans throughout the region. We observed chloride concentrations(More)
[1] Shallow landslides are a significant hazard in steep, soil-mantled landscapes. During intense rainfall events, the distribution of shallow landslides is controlled by variations in landscape gradient, the frictional and cohesive properties of soil and roots, and the subsurface hydrologic response. While gradients can be estimated from digital elevation(More)
Urban landscapes contain a mix of land-use types with different patterns of nitrogen (N) cycling and export. We measured nitrate (NO(3)(-)) leaching and soil:atmosphere nitrous oxide (N(2)O) flux in four urban grassland and eight forested long-term study plots in the Baltimore, Maryland metropolitan area. We evaluated ancillary controls on these fluxes by(More)
[1] The adjustment of local vegetation conditions to limiting soil water by either maximizing productivity or minimizing water stress has been an area of central interest in ecohydrology since Eagleson's classic study. This work has typically been limited to consider one-dimensional exchange and cycling within patches and has not incorporated the effects of(More)
The hydrological recovery of watersheds from disturbances such as ®re and harvest can change the magnitude and distribution of ¯ow paths as the canopy regenerates. The spatial distribution of net water input to the soil±topography system is mediated by vegetation patterns through the processes of interception, evapotranspiration and snowmelt. We have(More)
This paper presents a new method for extracting flow directions, contributing (upslope) areas, and nested catchments from digital elevation models in lake-dominated areas. Existing tools for acquiring descriptive variables of the topography, such as surface flow directions and contributing areas, were developed for moderate to steep topography. These tools(More)
Forest canopy phenology is an important constraint on annual water and carbon budgets, and responds to regional interannual climate variation. In steep terrain, there are complex spatial variations in phenology due to topographic influences on microcli-mate, community composition, and available soil moisture. In this study, we investigate spatial patterns(More)
a r t i c l e i n f o Mountain watersheds are sources of a set of valuable ecosystem services as well as potential hazards. The former include high quality freshwater, carbon sequestration, nutrient retention, and biodiversity, whereas the latter include flash floods, landslides and forest fires. Each of these ecosystem services and hazards represents(More)
A Jarvis based [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 273 (1976) 593] model of canopy stomatal conductance was evaluated in context of its application to simulating transpiration in a conifer forest covered watershed in the Central Sierra Nevada of California, USA. Parameters influencing stomatal conductance were assigned values using Monte Carlo sampling.(More)