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BACKGROUND Carriers of germ-line mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 from families at high risk for cancer have been estimated to have an 85 percent risk of breast cancer. Since the combined frequency of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations exceeds 2 percent among Ashkenazi Jews, we were able to estimate the risk of cancer in a large group of Jewish men and women from the(More)
Since BRCA1, the first major gene responsible for inherited breast cancer, was cloned, more than 50 unique mutations have been detected in the germline of individuals with breast and ovarian cancer. In high-risk pedigrees, female carriers of BRCA1 mutations have an 80-90% lifetime risk of breast cancer, and a 40-50% risk of ovarian cancer. However, the(More)
Certain germline mutations in either BRCA1 or BRCA2 confer a lifetime risk of developing breast cancer that may approach 90%. The BRCA1 185delAG mutation was found in 20% and the BRCA2 6174delT mutation in 8% of Ashkenazi Jewish women with early-onset breast cancer. The 185delAG mutation was observed in 0.9% of 858 Ashkenazi Jews unselected for a personal(More)
The breast cancer tumor-suppressor gene, BRCA1, encodes a protein with a BRCT domain-a motif that is found in many proteins that are implicated in DNA damage response and in genome stability. Phosphorylation of BRCA1 by the DNA damage-response proteins ATM, ATR and hCds1/Chk2 changes in response to DNA damage and at replication-block checkpoints. Although(More)
Patients with biallelic mutations in BRCA2 are in Fanconi anaemia group D1. We analysed the severity of the mutations in 27 cases, classified according to their association with breast cancer in heterozygotes, and their predicted functional effect. Twenty mutations were frameshifts or truncations, three involved splice sites, five were missense variants of(More)
Low maternal folate or vitamin B12 status has been implicated in numerous pregnancy complications including spontaneous abortion. The primary aim of this study was to test a polymorphism within the trifunctional folate enzyme MTHFD1 (5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase, 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase, 10-formyltetrahydrofolate(More)
BACKGROUND Although the increase in risk of developing breast, ovarian, and prostate cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers has been studied extensively, its impact on mortality is not well quantified. Further, possible effect of BRCA mutations on non-cancer mortality risk has not been examined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Using mortality data(More)
Here we report the application of high-density oligonucleotide array (DNA chip)-based analysis to determine the distant history of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in current human populations. We analysed orthologues for 397 human SNP sites (identified in CEPH pedigrees from Amish, Venezuelan and Utah populations) from 23 common chimpanzee, 19 pygmy(More)
Three founder mutations in the cancer-associated genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 occur frequently enough among Ashkenazi Jews to warrant consideration of genetic testing outside the setting of high-risk families with multiple cases of breast or ovarian cancer. We estimated the prevalence of these founder mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 in the general population of(More)
The ability to scan a large gene rapidly and accurately for all possible heterozygous mutations in large numbers of patient samples will be critical for the future of medicine. We have designed high-density arrays consisting of over 96,600 oligonucleotides 20-nucleotides (nt) in length to screen for a wide range of heterozygous mutations in the(More)