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The E6 oncoprotein derived from tumour-associated human papillomaviruses (HPVs) binds to and induces the degradation of the cellular tumour-suppressor protein p53. A common polymorphism that occurs in the p53 amino-acid sequence results in the presence of either a proline or an arginine at position 72. The effect of this polymorphism on the susceptibility(More)
Ski interacting protein (Skip) plays an important role in the transforming activity of both v-Ski and EBNA2 (Epstein-Barr virus encoded latency protein) and is involved in EBNA2 and NotchIC activation of CBF1-repressed promoters. We have previously shown that Skip acts as a transcriptional co-activator on a number of cellular and viral promoters. Here, we(More)
Human papillomavirus (HPV) replication occurs in terminally differentiating epithelium, and requires the activation of cellular DNA replication proteins. Unscheduled DNA replication can result in the induction of apoptosis, and the viral E6 protein induces the degradation of p53 to prevent this. It has recently been shown that HPV-18 E6 can also stimulate(More)
The regulation of human papillomavirus (HPV) gene expression by the E2 protein is a critical feature of the viral life cycle. Previous studies have shown an important role in transcription for the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, but its role in HPV gene expression has not been addressed. We now show that HPV E2 requires an active proteasome for its optimal(More)
The discs large (Dlg) tumour suppressor protein is targeted for ubiquitin-mediated degradation by the high-risk human papillomavirus E6 proteins. To understand further the mechanisms behind this, a mutational analysis of Dlg was undertaken. This study demonstrates that an intact PDZ domain 2 (PDZ2) on Dlg is necessary for the ability of E6 to bind and(More)
Ski interacting protein (Skip) has been found to bind to the highly conserved region of Ski, which is required for its transforming activity. Ski is a unique oncoprotein that is involved in inducing both transformation and differentiation. At the molecular level, Ski has been shown to exhibit either co-activator or co-repressor activity depending on the(More)
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE Reduced bone mineral density is a feature of patients with reduced mobility. The aim of this study was to assess bone mineral density in children with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and to evaluate bone mineral density in relation to age and motor disability. PATIENTS AND METHODS We analysed bone mineral density measurements on twelve(More)
The Drosophila tumour suppressor discs large (Dlg) is a cell-junction localized protein that is required for the maintenance of epithelial cyto-architecture and the negative control of cell proliferation. The mammalian homologue is likely to have a similar mode of action, and therefore functional perturbation of this protein may be linked to the development(More)
We recently reported the expression of human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV-18) E6 protein in bacteria and the production of anti-E6 polyclonal antibodies. This work has now been extended with the production of a panel of monoclonal antibodies against the HPV-18 E6 protein. These antibodies demonstrate that there is little antigenic conservation in the E6(More)
Over 250 PDZ (PSD95/Dlg/ZO-1) domain-containing proteins have been described in the human proteome. As many of these possess multiple PDZ domains, the potential combinations of associations with proteins that possess PBMs (PDZ-binding motifs) are vast. However, PDZ domain recognition is a highly specific process, and much less promiscuous than originally(More)