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The relation between viremia and clinical outcome in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) has important implications for therapeutic research and clinical care. HIV-1 RNA in plasma was quantified with a branched-DNA signal amplification assay as a measure of viral load in a cohort of 180 seropositive men studied for more(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and pulse waveform analysis (PWA) measures of arterial stiffness in a childhood-onset type 1 diabetes population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Cardiac autonomic nerve function was measured in the baseline examination of the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications(More)
Higher white blood cell counts in smokers compared with nonsmokers have been well documented, but the longitudinal relation between changes in smoking and changes in white blood cells has not been well described. Since 1984, data have been collected semiannually by the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), a four-center prospective cohort study of acquired(More)
Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) is a recently discovered virus that causes 80% of Merkel cell carcinomas. We examined data for 564 gay/bisexual male participants >18 years of age in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, and found that 447 (79.3%) were MCV-antibody positive at initial enrollment. Of the 117 MCV-seronegative men,(More)
Researchers commonly express scepticism about using observational data to estimate the effect of a treatment on an outcome the treatment is intended to affect. In this paper, we consider using data from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) to determine whether zidovudine prevents the development of Kaposi's sarcoma among HIV-positive gay men. Several(More)
INTRODUCTION The purpose of this study was to characterize brain volumetric differences in HIV seropositive and seronegative men and to determine effects of age, cardiovascular risk, and HIV infection on structural integrity. METHODS Magnetic resonance imaging was used to acquire high-resolution neuroanatomic data in 160 men aged 50 years and over,(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the pattern and extent of caudate nucleus and putamen atrophy in HIV-infected men with well-controlled immune status and viral replication. 155 men underwent structural brain magnetic resonance imaging; 84 were HIV-infected and 71 were uninfected controls. MRI data were processed using the Fully Deformable(More)
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between cognitive performance, risk factors for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease (CVD), and HIV infection in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. METHODS We evaluated the cognitive functions of men enrolled in the cardiovascular disease substudy of the Multicenter(More)
To estimate the net (i.e., overall) effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on time to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or death, the authors used inverse probability-of-treatment weighted estimation of a marginal structural model, which can appropriately adjust for time-varying confounders affected by prior treatment or exposure.(More)
The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) is one of the largest and longest running studies of the natural and treated history of HIV disease. The Neuropsychological (NP) substudy was begun in 1988 following reports of significant adverse neurological consequences of HIV disease, including dementia. The goal was to characterize the neuropsychological(More)