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Predetermination of sex in livestock offspring is in great demand and is of critical importance to providing for the most efficient production of the world's food supply. With the changes that have taken place in animal agriculture over the past generation the application of sex preselection to production systems becomes increasingly necessary. The current(More)
The proportion of living sperm in semen from six representative mammals was assessed by means of a dual staining technique using the stains SYBR-14 and propidium iodide (PI). SYBR-14, a newly developed fluorescent nucleic acid stain, maximally absorbs at 488 nm and emits at 518 nm when bound to DNA. Microscopic examination revealed that SYBR-14 stained the(More)
Sex preselection that is based on flow-cytometric measurement of sperm DNA content to enable sorting of X- from Y-chromosome-bearing sperm has proven reproducible at various locations and with many species at greater than 90% purity. Offspring of the predetermined sex in both domestic animals and human beings have been born using this technology since its(More)
Media are available that can deliver modest porcine embryonic development from a single-cell zygote to the blastocyst stage. However, few embryos develop to hatched blastocysts by Day 7 in vitro, indicating deficiencies in media that inhibit early embryonic development. A defined culture medium, Beltsville Embryo Culture Medium (BECM-3), was developed to(More)
Spermatozoa from bulls, boars, dogs, horses, mice, and men were examined using a fluorogenic stain consisting of the membrane-permeant substrate carboxyfluorescin diacetate (CFDA) and the relatively membrane-impermeant nuclear stain propidium iodide (PI). Three distinct populations of spermatozoa were discernible in samples from each species upon(More)
Human X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa were separated based on their DNA content, using modified flow cytometric cell sorting technology. The resulting separation purity of the X-bearing from Y-bearing spermatozoa was evaluated using in-situ hybridization with alpha satellite DNA probes for the X- and Y-chromosomes. In the putative X-enriched-sorted(More)
Intact, viable X and Y chromosome-bearing sperm populations of the rabbit were separated according to DNA content with a flow cytometer/cell sorter. Reanalysis for DNA of an aliquot from each sorted population showed purities of 86% for X-bearing sperm and 81% for Y-bearing sperm populations. Sorted sperm were surgically inseminated into the uterus of(More)