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DNA methylation is the most widely studied epigenetic mark and is known to be essential to normal development and frequently disrupted in disease. The Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip assays the methylation status of CpGs at 485,577 sites across the genome. Here we present Subset-quantile Within Array Normalization (SWAN), a new method that(More)
Environment induced epigenetic effects on gene expression in early life are likely to play important roles in mediating the risk of several immune-related diseases. In order to investigate this fully, it is essential to first document temporal changes in epigenetic profile in disease-free individuals as a prelude to defining environmentally mediated(More)
The endothelial compartment, comprising arterial, venous and lymphatic cell types, is established prenatally in association with rapid phenotypic and functional changes. The molecular mechanisms underpinning this process in utero have yet to be fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for DNA methylation to act as a driver of(More)
Disorders of sex development (DSD), ranging in severity from mild genital abnormalities to complete sex reversal, represent a major concern for patients and their families. DSD are often due to disruption of the genetic programs that regulate gonad development. Although some genes have been identified in these developmental pathways, the causative mutations(More)
Articular cartilage is indispensable for joint function but has limited capacity for self-repair. Engineering of neocartilage in vitro is therefore a major target for autologous cartilage repair in arthritis. Previous analysis of neocartilage has targeted cellular organization and specific molecular components. However, the complexity of extracellular(More)
The extent to which development- and age-associated epigenetic changes are influenced by genetic, environmental and stochastic factors remains to be discovered. Twins provide an ideal model with which to investigate these influences but previous cross-sectional twin studies provide contradictory evidence of within-pair epigenetic drift over time.(More)
Within-pair comparison of monozygotic (MZ) twins provides an ideal model for studying factors that regulate epigenetic profile, by controlling for genetic variation. Previous reports have demonstrated epigenetic variability within MZ pairs, but the contribution of early life exposures to this variation remains unclear. As epigenetic marks govern gene(More)
Comparison between groups of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins enables an estimation of the relative contribution of genetic and shared and nonshared environmental factors to phenotypic variability. Using DNA methylation profiling of ∼20,000 CpG sites as a phenotype, we have examined discordance levels in three neonatal tissues from 22 MZ and 12 DZ(More)
Epigenetic regulation of gene expression, through covalent modification of histones, is a key process controlling growth and development. Accordingly, the transcription factors regulating these processes are important targets of genetic diseases. However, surprisingly little is known about the relationship between aberrant epigenetic states, the cellular(More)
The human placenta facilitates the exchange of nutrients, gas and waste between the fetal and maternal circulations. It also protects the fetus from the maternal immune response. Due to its role at the feto-maternal interface, the placenta is subject to many environmental exposures that can potentially alter its epigenetic profile. Previous studies have(More)