Lavin A. Joseph

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Campylobacter species are the leading agents of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. C. jejuni and C. coli together are responsible for more than 95% of all cases of Campylobacter-induced diarrheal disease in the United States. Detection of campylobacteria in clinical samples by conventional culture is problematic and slow due to their complex taxonomy,(More)
A focused oligonucleotide microarray featuring 62 probes targeting strain variable regions of the Clostridium botulinum strain ATCC 3502 genome sequence was developed to differentiate C. botulinum type A strains. The strain variable regions were selected from deletions identified among a panel of 10 type A strains compared to the strain ATCC 3502 genome(More)
BACKGROUND Although new pathogen-vehicle combinations are increasingly being identified in produce-related disease outbreaks, fresh produce is a rarely recognized vehicle for listeriosis. We investigated a nationwide listeriosis outbreak that occurred in the United States during 2011. METHODS We defined an outbreak-related case as a laboratory-confirmed(More)
We identified a novel serotype 1/2a outbreak strain and 2 novel epidemic clones of Listeria monocytogenes while investigating a foodborne outbreak of listeriosis associated with consumption of cantaloupe during 2011 in the United States. Comparative analyses of strains worldwide are essential to identification of novel outbreak strains and epidemic clones.
Botulinum neurotoxin type F (BoNT/F) may be produced by Clostridium botulinum alone or in combination with another toxin type such as BoNT/A or BoNT/B. Type F neurotoxin gene sequences have been further classified into seven toxin subtypes. Recently, the genome sequence of one strain of C. botulinum (Af84) was shown to contain three neurotoxin genes(More)
We sequenced the genomes of 10 Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis isolates containing blaCTX-M-65 obtained from chicken, cattle, and human sources collected between 2012 and 2015 in the United States through routine National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) surveillance and product sampling programs. We also completely assembled the(More)
Multistate outbreaks of salmonellosis associated with live poultry contact have been occurring with increasing frequency. In 2013, multistate outbreaks of salmonellosis were traced back to exposure to live poultry, some of which were purchased at a national chain of farm stores (Farm store chain Y). This study was conducted at 36 stores of Farm store chain(More)
We used whole-genome sequencing to determine evolutionary relationships among 20 outbreak-associated clinical isolates of Listeria monocytogenes serotypes 1/2a and 1/2b. Isolates from 6 of 11 outbreaks fell outside the clonal groups or "epidemic clones" that have been previously associated with outbreaks, suggesting that epidemic potential may be widespread(More)
Vibrio vulnificus is a human pathogen that produces lethal septicemia in susceptible persons, and the primary virulence factor for this organism is capsular polysaccharide (CPS). The role of the capsule in V. vulnificus biofilms was examined under a variety of conditions, by using either defined CPS mutants or spontaneous CPS expression phase variants(More)
Drug resistance among yeasts is an increasing problem. Isolates of Candida krusei and Candida glabrata are recognized as having reduced susceptibility to fluconazole and resistance to this drug has also arisen in Candida albicans isolated from AIDS patients on long term azole therapy. Candida tropicalis (CT) is being increasingly isolated from human disease(More)