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Campylobacter species are the leading agents of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. C. jejuni and C. coli together are responsible for more than 95% of all cases of Campylobacter-induced diarrheal disease in the United States. Detection of campylobacteria in clinical samples by conventional culture is problematic and slow due to their complex taxonomy,(More)
BACKGROUND Although new pathogen-vehicle combinations are increasingly being identified in produce-related disease outbreaks, fresh produce is a rarely recognized vehicle for listeriosis. We investigated a nationwide listeriosis outbreak that occurred in the United States during 2011. METHODS We defined an outbreak-related case as a laboratory-confirmed(More)
A multistate listeriosis outbreak associated with cantaloupe consumption was reported in the United States in September, 2011. The outbreak investigation recorded a total of 146 invasive illnesses, 30 deaths and one miscarriage. Subtyping of the outbreak associated clinical, food and environmental isolates revealed two serotypes (1/2a and 1/2b) and four(More)
Multistate outbreaks of salmonellosis associated with live poultry contact have been occurring with increasing frequency. In 2013, multistate outbreaks of salmonellosis were traced back to exposure to live poultry, some of which were purchased at a national chain of farm stores (Farm store chain Y). This study was conducted at 36 stores of Farm store chain(More)
Listeriosis is caused by Listeria monocytogenes, a gram-positive bacillus common in the environment and acquired by humans primarily through consumption of contaminated food. Infection causes a spectrum of illness, ranging from febrile gastroenteritis to invasive disease, including sepsis and meningoencephalitis. Invasive listeriosis occurs predominantly in(More)
Vibrio vulnificus is a human pathogen that produces lethal septicemia in susceptible persons, and the primary virulence factor for this organism is capsular polysaccharide (CPS). The role of the capsule in V. vulnificus biofilms was examined under a variety of conditions, by using either defined CPS mutants or spontaneous CPS expression phase variants(More)
We used whole-genome sequencing to determine evolutionary relationships among 20 outbreak-associated clinical isolates of Listeria monocytogenes serotypes 1/2a and 1/2b. Isolates from 6 of 11 outbreaks fell outside the clonal groups or "epidemic clones" that have been previously associated with outbreaks, suggesting that epidemic potential may be widespread(More)
A focused oligonucleotide microarray featuring 62 probes targeting strain variable regions of the Clostridium botulinum strain ATCC 3502 genome sequence was developed to differentiate C. botulinum type A strains. The strain variable regions were selected from deletions identified among a panel of 10 type A strains compared to the strain ATCC 3502 genome(More)
CASE DESCRIPTION--In April 2012, Salmonella enterica serotype Infantis was detected in an unopened bag of dry dog food collected during routine retail surveillance. PulseNet, a national bacterial subtyping network, identified humans with Salmonella Infantis infection with the same genetic fingerprint as the dog food sample. CLINICAL FINDINGS--An outbreak(More)
We identified a novel serotype 1/2a outbreak strain and 2 novel epidemic clones of Listeria monocytogenes while investigating a foodborne outbreak of listeriosis associated with consumption of cantaloupe during 2011 in the United States. Comparative analyses of strains worldwide are essential to identification of novel outbreak strains and epidemic clones.