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Noroviruses (NoVs) of genogroup II, cluster 4 (GII.4), are the most common cause of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. During the past 13 years, GII.4 NoVs caused four seasons of widespread activity globally, each associated with the emergence of a new strain. In this report, we characterized the most recent epidemic strain, GII.4-2006 Minerva,(More)
OBJECTIVES The dependence potential of benzodiazepine medications is now widely recognized, but uncertainty exists as to whether use of short half-life vs long half-life drugs results in greater dependence. The present study reports a meta-analysis of the extant research to evaluate the dependence potential of different types of benzodiazepines. METHOD(More)
OBJECTIVES This study examined differences between the visibility of drugs and drug use in more than 2100 neighborhoods, challenging an assumption about drug use in poor, minority, and urban communities. METHODS A telephone survey assessed substance use and attitudes across 41 communities in an evaluation of a national community-based demand reduction(More)
Substance use theory and practice have traditionally focused on individuals who misuse substances or who are at risk for substance misuse, but this emphasis is shifting. The present study views both substance use and misuse systematically, assessing the relationships between the physical and social environments and substance use and misuse in dynamic(More)
A clinical assessment of the Mental Health Services Program for Youth, a national initiative to integrate systems and coordinate care for severely emotionally disturbed children, was designed to augment and enrich the larger evaluation of program structure. Case conferences were used as a method of examining the effects of collaborative systems of care on(More)
The evaluation of community-based programs poses special design and analysis problems. The present article focuses on two major types of errors that can occur in such evaluations: false positive--incorrectly declaring a program to be effective--and false negatives--incorrectly declaring a program to be ineffective. The evaluation of a national demonstration(More)