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Type I DNA restriction/modification enzymes protect the bacterial cell from viral infection by cleaving foreign DNA which lacks N6-adenine methylation within a target sequence and maintaining the methylation of the targets on the host chromosome. It has been noted that the genes specifying type I systems can be transferred to a new host lacking the(More)
The DNA methyltransferase component of the type I restriction and modification enzyme of Escherichia coli K12 has been purified. The active component, a trimer of molecular mass 170 kDa consisting of one DNA recognition subunit (S) and two modification subunits (M), showed the expected preference for modifying a hemimethylated substrate rather than an(More)
Gene orf18, which is situated within the intercellular transposition region of the conjugative transposon Tn916 from the bacterial pathogen Enterococcus faecalis, encodes a putative ArdA (alleviation of restriction of DNA A) protein. Conjugative transposons are generally resistant to DNA restriction upon transfer to a new host. ArdA from Tn916 may be(More)
Type I DNA restriction/modification (RM) enzymes are molecular machines found in the majority of bacterial species. Their early discovery paved the way for the development of genetic engineering. They control (restrict) the influx of foreign DNA via horizontal gene transfer into the bacterium while maintaining sequence-specific methylation (modification) of(More)
Fluorescent proteins are increasingly becoming actuators in a range of cell biology techniques. One of those techniques is chromophore-assisted laser inactivation (CALI), which is employed to specifically inactivate the function of target proteins or organelles by producing photochemical damage. CALI is achieved by the irradiation of dyes that are able to(More)
The ardA gene, found in many prokaryotes including important pathogenic species, allows associated mobile genetic elements to evade the ubiquitous Type I DNA restriction systems and thereby assist the spread of resistance genes in bacterial populations. As such, ardA contributes to a major healthcare problem. We have solved the structure of the ArdA protein(More)
DNA mimic proteins have evolved to control DNA-binding proteins by competing with the target DNA for binding to the protein. The Ocr protein of bacteriophage T7 is the most studied DNA mimic and functions to block the DNA-binding groove of Type I DNA restriction/modification enzymes. This binding prevents the enzyme from cleaving invading phage DNA. Each(More)
The homodimeric Ocr (overcome classical restriction) protein of bacteriophage T7 is a molecular mimic of double-stranded DNA and a highly effective competitive inhibitor of the bacterial type I restriction/modification system. The surface of Ocr is replete with acidic residues that mimic the phosphate backbone of DNA. In addition, Ocr also mimics the(More)
Type-I DNA restriction-modification (R/M) systems are important agents in limiting the transmission of mobile genetic elements responsible for spreading bacterial resistance to antibiotics. EcoKI, a Type I R/M enzyme from Escherichia coli, acts by methylation- and sequence-specific recognition, leading to either methylation of DNA or translocation and(More)
For type I restriction systems, recently determined nucleotide sequences predict conserved amino acids in the subunit that is essential for restriction but not modification (HsdR). The conserved sequences emphasize motifs characteristic of the DEAD-box family of proteins which comprises putative helicases, and they identify a new candidate for motif IV. We(More)