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Reports of new and emerging coral diseases have proliferated in recent years. Such coral diseases are often cited as contributing to coral reef decline. Many of these diseases, however, have been described solely on the basis of field characteristics, and in some instances there is disagreement as to whether an observed coral condition is actually a(More)
The abundance and distribution of black band disease on the reef building coralsMontastraea annularis, M. cavernosa, Colpophyllia natans, Diploria clivosa, D. labyrinthiformis andD. strigosa were determined at Algae Reef, Grecian Rocks and Key Largo Dry Rocks in the Key Largo National Marine Sanctuary, Florida, USA. During July and November of 1992 and July(More)
The number of coral diseases, coral species they infect, number of reported cases, and range over which these diseases are distributed have all increased dramatically in the past 3 decades, posing a serious threat to coral reef ecosystems worldwide. While some published studies provide data on the distribution of coral diseases at local and regional levels,(More)
A bacterium previously isolated from a diseased colony of the scleractinian coral Dichocoenia stokesi (common name elliptical star coral) was subjected to a detailed polyphasic taxonomic characterization. The isolate, designated WP1T, was halophilic and strictly aerobic and formed golden-orange-pigmented colonies after prolonged incubation. Cells of WP1T(More)
Eleven environmental factors (salinity, water depth, water temperature, nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, soluble phosphate, total phosphate, turbidity, coral diversity, and percent coral cover) were measured at 190 sites on 12 patch reefs of the Florida Keys. Each (2-m-diameter) site was centered around a coral colony with active black band disease (n=21) or a(More)
Abstract Laboratory studies were carried out to assess the photosynthetic and nitrogen-fixing capabilities of the gliding, filamentous cyanobacterium Phormidium corallyticum. This species is found on coral reefs, and is one of the members of a pathogenic microbial consortium called black band disease of corals, a unique horizontally migrating microbial mat(More)
Infectious diseases are recognized as significant contributors to the dramatic loss of corals observed worldwide. However, the causes of increased coral disease prevalence and severity are not well understood. One potential factor is elevated nutrient concentration related to localized anthropogenic activities such as inadequate waste water treatment or(More)
An in situ field study of the motility patterns exhibited by Phormidium corallyticum and Beggiatoa spp. in black-band disease of corals was conducted over a 5-day period. Measurements were made at a spatial resolution of 50 μm to document the horizontal migration of black-band across living coral tissue, while vertical migrations within the band were(More)
Black band disease (BBD) is a migrating, cyanobacterial dominated, sulfide-rich microbial mat that moves across coral colonies lysing coral tissue. While it is known that BBD sulfate-reducing bacteria contribute to BBD pathogenicity by production of sulfide, additional mechanisms of toxicity may be involved. Using HPLC/MS, the cyanotoxin microcystin was(More)
A balanced approach to coral disease investigation is critical for understanding the global decline of corals. Such an approach should involve the proper use of biomedical concepts, tools, and terminology to address confusion and promote clarity in the coral disease literature. Investigating disease in corals should follow a logical series of steps(More)