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The number of coral diseases, coral species they infect, number of reported cases, and range over which these diseases are distributed have all increased dramatically in the past 3 decades, posing a serious threat to coral reef ecosystems worldwide. While some published studies provide data on the distribution of coral diseases at local and regional levels,(More)
A balanced approach to coral disease investigation is critical for understanding the global decline of corals. Such an approach should involve the proper use of biomedical concepts, tools, and terminology to address confusion and promote clarity in the coral disease literature. Investigating disease in corals should follow a logical series of steps(More)
A bacterium previously isolated from a diseased colony of the scleractinian coral Dichocoenia stokesi (common name elliptical star coral) was subjected to a detailed polyphasic taxonomic characterization. The isolate, designated WP1T, was halophilic and strictly aerobic and formed golden-orange-pigmented colonies after prolonged incubation. Cells of WP1T(More)
Reports of new and emerging coral diseases have proliferated in recent years. Such coral diseases are often cited as contributing to coral reef decline. Many of these diseases, however, have been described solely on the basis of field characteristics, and in some instances there is disagreement as to whether an observed coral condition is actually a(More)
Black band disease (BBD) is a migrating, cyanobacterial dominated, sulfide-rich microbial mat that moves across coral colonies lysing coral tissue. While it is known that BBD sulfate-reducing bacteria contribute to BBD pathogenicity by production of sulfide, additional mechanisms of toxicity may be involved. Using HPLC/MS, the cyanotoxin microcystin was(More)
Abstract Laboratory studies were carried out to assess the photosynthetic and nitrogen-fixing capabilities of the gliding, filamentous cyanobacterium Phormidium corallyticum. This species is found on coral reefs, and is one of the members of a pathogenic microbial consortium called black band disease of corals, a unique horizontally migrating microbial mat(More)
Black band disease (BBD) consists of a cyanobacterial-dominated, sulfide-rich microbial mat that migrates across coral colonies, degrading coral tissue. The mat contains diverse bacteria that include photoautotrophs (cyanobacteria), sulfate-reducers, sulfide-oxidizers, and organoheterotrophs. BBD sulfate-reducers contribute to BBD pathobiology by production(More)
Imaging spectrometers or " Hyperspectral Sensors " simultaneously collect spectral data as both images and as individual spectra. A broad range of techniques have been examined, refined, and put into operational practice for analysis of geologic problems. This paper describes a successful geologic case history using an end-to-end approach on Airborne(More)
Black band disease (BBD) of corals is characterized as a pathogenic microbial consortium composed of a wide variety of microorganisms. Together, many of these microorganisms contribute to an active sulfur cycle that produces anoxia and high levels of sulfide adjacent to the coral surface, conditions that are lethal to coral tissue. Sulfate-reducing(More)
Many cyanobacteria produce cyanotoxins, which has been well documented from freshwater environments but not investigated to the same extent in marine environments. Cyanobacteria are an obligate component of the polymicrobial disease of corals known as black band disease (BBD). Cyanotoxins were previously shown to be present in field samples of BBD and in a(More)